Skip to main content

Full text of "A Plea for the [Inspiration and] Canon of Scripture ( Bible) by the Bible Society"

See other formats

The Following Books or Ebooks may be of use to you 
If this current Ebook is helpful. 

Most of these Ebooks are available online, Free (PDF). 

Search the Titles or Authors or Keywords and you 

may be able to find them, under" Bible Society Apocrypha" for now. 

1 . A Plea for the Canon of Scripture 
by the Edinburgh Bible Society 

2. Vindication of the Proceedings of the Edinburgh Bible Society 
related to the Apocrypha by the Edinburgh Bible Society 

3. STATEMENT of the Bible Society Concerning 
the Apocrypha -1825 

by the Edinburgh Bible Society 

4. The 1 840 Report of the American Bible Society. 

This was a response to the Proceedings of the Bible Convention- Which Met 
in Philadelphia. April 26, 27, 28, and 29. 1837 . This is the documentation 
for the founding of the American and Foreign Bible Society. [Available 
online via Google Books] 

The ABS (American Bible Society) report of 1840 

which admits that the American Bible Society was promoting 

Roman Catholic Editions, was shocking since the Bible Society 

was claiming to be Protestant, and the Inquisition was still in progress. 

This has been made available online so people can see for themselves. 

For more information concerning Textual Criticism 
and Versions, you may find the following Ebook: 

Hidden History of the Greek Testament 

Also more information on books of interest 
at the back of this volume. 

Records of History in Versions of the Bible 





Of :n/iicA ihe Apocrypha makes an integral part , 

COe SBifile *£>ocUt$ dontroucrsp, 





" Babes kepc yourselves from ymages." 1 John v. SI. 
" I testify unto every man that heareth the wordes of the prophecy of this 

boke, yf any man shall adde "»'« these thyriges, God shall adile unto him 

ihe placea that arc wryttcn in this holfe." Rev. siii. 10. 

Tyndal's Second Edition, 1514. 

A ddresacd to the members of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 


Translator of the English Bible. 







The difference of opinion which exists among some of 
the principal directors of w the British and Foreign Bible 
Society/' in regard to giving encouragement to the circu- 
lation of the Apocrypha on the Continent, is a subject 
which very considerably engages the attention of British 

The influence of this Society is so powerful and exten- 
sive, that any published decision by its Committee, on a 
subject so vitally protestant as regarding the books which 
compose the Canon op Scripture, will be very sensibly 
felt, both at home and abroad. 

The Society expended the last year more than ninety 
thousand pounds : and in about twenty years it has been 
entrusted by the British Protestant Public with ON E 
contributed for the avowed purpose of circulating the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament only : every 
pound then which has been expended by its Committee in 
purchasing the Apocrypha, has been alienated from the 
object to which it was sacredly devoted : this has been 

especially (he case in respect to the assistance afforded to 
promote the circulation of the Old Testament of Dr. 
Leander Vau £ss, according to the authorized version 


But this pecuniary lass weighs nothing, when compared 
with the misery that the Committee have thus assisted to 
perpetuate, by sanctioning the fundamental errors of the 
Church of Rome ; not only among the present race oi its 
ignorant and idolatrous members, but of their succeeding 

It. is the design of this pamphlet to make the members 
of. the Bible Society acquainted with the history of the 
ArocRYPHA ; particularly in connection with that of the 
early editions of the English Bible. 

For this purpose the author has examined each of the 
first translations and various other copies of the Bible, in 
the English language ; and has been enabled t.o correct many 
mistakes, which have hitherto prevailed upon the subject of 
its history. 

It is not too much to expect, that Protestants will not 
suffer an accommodating charity to destroy an inflexible 
consistency ; and that even the desire to express good-will 
towards men, by propagating the gospel of peace through- 
out the world, will be regulated as well as animated, by a 
paramount concern for the glory of God. 

The reader is reminded of the well-expressed sentiment 
of the distinguished Chillingworth, " The Bible, and THE 


BIBLE ALONE, is the religion of Protestants ;" and also 
of a still higher, because an inspired axiom, well adapted to 
the subject to which the subjoined pages relate ; " WE can 


TRUTH." 2 Cor. xiii. 8. 

It appears to the writer, that the Committee and the 
Secretaries, by having- sanctioned the circulation of THE 
popish Canon of Scripture, have not only acted incon- 
sistently, but trifled with the trust reposed in them by the 
Society to conduct the business of the Institution ; and that 
they should not expect to be re-elected, nor that the annual 
salaries will be again voted, until they have given a distinct 
and solemn pledge to the British public, that it shall in future 
be a bona fide PROTESTANT Bible Society. 

The Author respectfully submits his work to the dispas- 
sionate, unprejudiced investigation of those to whom it is 
addressed, and to the favour and blessing of God.—" Save 
now, I beseech thee, O Lord ! O Lord, J beseech thee, 
send now prosperity." 

London, Nov, 5, 1825. The220lk Anniversary of the 
Pophh Gunpowder Treason Plot. 



Origin and principles of the Society. — Circumstances which led to the contro- 
versy. — Committee assist in printing the French and Sclavonian versions, which 
include the apocryphal books. 


Difference of arrangement respecting the apocryphal books in the Protestant and 
Popisli versions of the Holy Scriptures. — Decree of the council of Trent, res- 
pecting the Apocrypha. — Opinions of eminent protestant writers on the Canon 
of Scriptnre. 


Proceedings of the Committee of the Edinburgh Bible Society. — Of several 
clergymen of the University of Cambridge. — Of some Members of the Com. 
mittee of the Parent Society, and others in London, — Measures adopted by the 
Committee of the Parent Society in couseqnence. 


Brief history and description of the apocryphal boots. — Opinions of Dr. Dod- 
dridge. — Rev. Benjamin Bennett — Dr. Prideanx. — Dr. Gray. — Dr. Hooker. — 
Bishop Cosins. — Dr. Lightfoot. 


History of the English Bible and Apocrypha, in the respective reigns of Henry 
VIU. Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth.— Proposed epitaphs to Tyndal and 
Rogers. — Tyndal's translation from the Hebrew and Greek; New Testament, 
1526; Pentateuch, 1530; whole Bible, without the Apocrypha, 1532.— Cover- 
dale's translation from the Latin and Dutch, including- the Apocrypha, 1535. — 
Matthews's, 1537,— Craumer's, 1539. — Taveruer'a, 1539.— Great Bible or large 
Volume. — Three distinct Copies (one of them with an interspersed Apocrypha) 
1540, 1541. — Geneva translation, 1559. — Parker's, or the Bishop's Bible, 1568. 
— King Edward's Articles of Religion, 1552, exclude. Queen Elizabeth's, of 
1562, include the apocryphal writings, 


Proceedings of the Synod of Dort, including five eminent British Divines, re- 
specting the Apocrypha, 1618. 


Concluding Remarks — Fundamental Principle of the.'Bible Society violated by 
the Committee — Incredible Statement of Dr. Leauder Van Ess— Arguments 
of Rev. Messrs. Venn and Simeon shewn to be futile— Considerations miring 
the Society to resolve upon confining their future operations entirely to the Pro- 
teataut Scriptures. 

Preparing for the press, by the same Author, 







Preparing for the press, by the same Author, 










Src 8re. 



The British and Foreign Bible Society was formed in, 
London in the year 1804. Its fundamental rules are thus 
expressed : 

"1. The designation of this Society shall be, The 
British and Foreign Bible Society, of which the 
sole object shall be to encourage a wider circulation of 
the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment. The only 
copies, in the languages of the United Kingdom, to be 
circulated by the Society, shall be the authorised version. 

"2. This Society shall add its endeavours to those em- 
ployed by other Societies for circulating the Scriptures 
through the British dominions, and shall also, according to 
its ability, extend its influence to other countries, Christian, 
Mahometan and Pagan."* 

The terms " Holy Scriptures," and "the Scriptures," in 
these Resolutions, mean the Old and New Testaments. This 
appears plain from the manner in which the design of the 
projectors of the Society is expressed in the circular by 

* Owen's History of the British and Foreign Bihle Society, vol. i. 
p. 74,75. 

which the first meeting, March 7, 1804, was convened. 
The following are extracts: " Several Societies have been 
formed for the propagation of scripture truth, but there is 
room for several more. This assertion is affectingly con- 
firmed by the result of specific inquiries recently made 
both in Britain and on the Continent. Under these im- 
pressions it has been proposed by the individuals referred 
to above, to institute a Society entitled, Thf. British 
and Foreign Bible Society. Its object — to promote 
the circulation of the Scriptures in some of the principal 
living languages. The sphere of its activity — First, the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the 
European Continent: afterwards remoter regions, as 
the state of the finances may admit, and the urgency of 
particular cases may require. The projected Society would 
traverse scenes which other Societies are, by their regula- 
tions forbidden to occupy; and presenting nothing but the 
INSPIRED volume, would be sure to circulate truth and 
TRUTH ALONE; hereby avoiding the occasions of con- 
troversy, and opening a channel into which Christians of 
every name might, without scruple, pour their charitable 

The following observations of a writer whose knowledge 
of the management of the Society for many years past 
enables him to judge of the views and sentiments of the 
Committee respecting its " sole object," are worthy of 
considerable attention: "The object proposed by the 
Society, as stated in the first Rule, is equally grand and 
simple ; it is to give to every one throughout the world, 
'the oracles of God' in his native language, his tongue 
wherein he was born. It has been well observed, that the 
Institution is thus ' founded on a principle so intelligible 
and so unexceptionable, that persons of any description, 
who profess to regard the holy Scriptures as the proper 
standard of faith, may cordially and conscientiously unite 
in it, and in the spirit of true christian charity, blend their 
common endeavours to promote. the glory of God.' If the 
circulation of any uninspired production, however ex- 
cellent, were included in this object, a difference of opinion 
must necessarily exist, and doubts and difficulties impede 
the progress of the Society; but in restricting it to the 
dissemination of the sacred volume ALONE, and embracing 

* Ibid. vol. i. p. 33,34,35. 

the world as its sphere of action, it asserts no common 
claim on the support of all who believe the Bible to be a 
revelation from God. This remark is equally applicable 
to the last member of the rule, which limits the circulation 
within the United Kingdom to the authorised version."* 

Nothing surely can be more obvious from the above 
extracts than this : that the original design of the founders 
of the Society was to promote the circulation of the inspired 
Scriptures alone, to the exclusion of every uninspired 
production, however excellent; and consequently whatever 
excellency might be possessed by the apocryphal writings, 
yet as they have no pretensions to the claim of being " the 
oracles of God," they were necessarily excluded. Had it 
not been thus understood, that the Society would encourage 
the circulation of "nothing but the inspired volume;' 7 thus 
disseminating truth, and truth alone, it would have been 
impossible for them " to avoid the occasions of controversy ;" 
nor could those Christians who consider the apocryphal 
writings as merely human compositions have contributed 
towards the support of the Institution. This fact appears 
so plain to the writer, that be is almost surprised any one, 
especially persons eminent for learning and piety, should 
have undertaken to prove, M that the aiding of any churches 
or people," by the funds of the Society, " who circulate the 
Apocrypha," is not contrary to "the original rules of the 
Society;" because in its Rules "there is nothing about 
the Apocrypha, nothing in express terms either for the 
admission or rejection of it."f It has too been said, 
that *■* if the strict letter or the spirit of the rules be 
attended to," they do not barely admit but enjoin the 
circulation of the Apocrypha:" " For," it is added, 
"by what name is the volume known in common parlance 
which contains the Old and New 1 Testaments and the 
Apocrypha, if not by Bible or Holy Scriptures?"^ 

It has but recently been known publicly, that for several 
years past differences of opinion have existed among those 
who from time to time have composed the Committee of 
the Parent Society, respecting the circulation of the apo- 
cryphal books by the Foreign Protestant Bible Societies, 

* Analysis of the System of the British and Foreign Bible Society, by 
C. S. Dudley. 

t A Letter to the Right Honourable Lord Teignmouth, by the Rev. 
C. Simeon, M. A. 

t Remarks, &c. by H. VenD, M.A. p. G. quarto. 

which have been assisted either by pecuniary supplies, or 
grants of Bibles from the funds of the Society. It appears 
that three years ago, an objection was made by some of its 
members against grants of money being made to such 
Societies in order to pay for the printing of Bibles contain- 
ing the apocryphal writings. So strong was the conviction 
of the Committee, that "the fundamental Rule of the 
Society limited the application of its funds to the circulation 
of the Holy Scriptures ;" and that by these were intended 
"the books of the Old and New Testament," to the ex- 
clusion of "the books esteemed apocryphal in England," 
and also, " that this view of the said Rule had beeu taken 
from the beginning, by the great body of its members ;" 
that the Committee resolved to request " those Bible 
Societies which circulate the apocryphal books, that they 
would appropriate all future grants which they might receive 
from their funds exclusively to the printing of the books 
of the Old and New Testaments as generally received 
in this country :" Such Societies, however, " remaining at 
full liberty to apply their own funds in whatever way as to 
the printing and circulation of the Apocrypha it may 
seem good to them."* 

A. circumstance which transpired in the month of May, 
1824, in relation to the apocryphal writings, has produced 
results which were, it is presumed, at the time it happened, 
not at all anticipated even by the Committee of the Parent 
Society. By the event alluded to, it has now been demon- 
strated, that a departure from their simple object, aiding 
the circulation of those uninspired books, has " necessarily 
caused a difference of opinion," and excited thoss "doubts 
and difficulties" which have most seriously " impeded the 
progress of the Society." 

In the year 1813, the Roman Catholic Professor of 
Divinity at Marburg in Hesse Cassel, the Rev. Leander 
Van Ess, became one of the agents of the Society. The 
reader will carefully mark the following statement re- 
specting him. " In availing themselves of this enlightened 
[RomanJ Catholic, the Committee had another opportunity 
of manifesting their scrupulous and watchful adherence to 
their great and fundamental principle. It was made a 
primary condition of any grant, that the few notes accom- 
panying his own impression [the New Testament which he 

' Statement by the Committee nf Uie Edinburgh Bible Society, p. 4. 

had translated], should be struck out from that which was 
to be printed and circulated at the expense of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society. With this condition be cheer- 
fully complied. His object was the glory of God, and the 
temporal and eternal welfare of his fellow creatures."* 

The eventful and perplexing circumstance to which al- 
lusion has been made, was an application by this pious and 
learned Roman Catholic Priest to the Committee of the 
Parent Society, to render him aid from their funds to pub- 
lish a translation which he had made of the Old Testament. 
Manifesting the same " scrupulous and watchful adherence 
to their great and fundamental principle," which had led 
them to demand the expulsion of the explanatory notes 
that he had appended to his New Testament, the sub-com- 
mittee, to whom his application had been referred, concluded 
they could not comply with bis request unless his translation 
was confined to the books of the Old and New Testaments ; 
they therefore in a letter which they addressed to him, 
dated, London, June 1st, 1824, enquired, "Whether he 
was inclined to print the whole of the Old Testament 
without the Apocrypha?" — -and offering, in the event 
of his complying with this suggestion, " to purchase of him 
for the use of the Society, EIGHT THOUSAND COPIES." 

The following translated extracts from the reply to this 
letter, dated Darmstadt, June 28, 1824, addressed to the 
Committee, will bring this whole matter, which has proved 
to be so fruitful a cause of " strife and debate," distinctly 
before the reader. 

" In reply to your letter of the 1st of June, concerning 
the proposal of purchasing 8000 copies of my translation 
of the Old Testament without the Apocrypha, and in refe- 
rence to the inquiries made respecting them by your sub- 
committee, I have humbly addressed myself in prayer to 
God, entreating him that He would vouchsafe unto me his 
light so to propose, and enable the Committee so to resolve, 
that whatever is done may be according to the will of God, 
and his divine pleasure, and eventually prove the best 
means of conveying assistance to the poor forlorn Roman 
Catholics, whose desire after God's word, and the possession 
of the whole Bible', daily grows stronger and assumes a 
more decided character. In my hours of retirement, and 
before God, I have endeavoured, according to his word, 

* Dudley's Analysis, p. 31. 

to weigh every thing deliberately with the wisdom of the 
serpent, but at the same time with the, simplicity of the 
dove ; and the result is, that I feel induced to submit with 
all humility and deference, the following' to your committee : — 

" Considering that in the Roman Catholic and Protestant 
states of Germany, things have scarcely ever worn so por- 
tentous an appearance as at the present moment, when so 
great is the excitement visible among the members of both 
persuasions, that we cannot but be apprehensive of its 
leading to some important crisis ; — considering that on the 
one hand, the power of Rome is, for the moment, greater 
than usual, and that it adopts every means of opposing the 
dissemination of the Bible among the laity ; whilst, on the 
other, the desire of the Roman Catholic population to ob- 
tain possession of the whole Bible was never so strong and 
so vehement as at present : — considering these things, and 
many other points immediately connected therewith, I 
beg leave to reply to your first question, Whether I am 
inclined to print the ■whole of the Old Testament without 
the Apocrypha? by the following observations. 

" This proposal cannot possibly be adopted with respect 
to Roman Catholics ; my reason for so saying is, that as the 
proposed alteration afiects the order and succession of the 
Biblical feooks which has for so many years been prescribed, 
followed and preserved, and would, if adopted, render my 
translation, as far as the order of the books is concerned, 
similar to Luther's version, it would cause a very strong 
sensation, and most probably irritate many weak minded 
Roman Catholics both among the clergy and laity ;— they 
would be inclined, under existing prejudices, to regard my 
translation as a Lutheran version, which would have the 
effect of preventing its being read by the majority ' of 
weaker Roman Catholics, and of causing it, moreover, to 
be immediately denounced and burnt by the zealots of 
Rome, and of course proscribed by the bishops and their 
vicars in Germany. The old lurking suspicion so strongly 
felt at Rome, and so prevalent also among the clergy in 
Germany, and which from time to time is re-echoed in ail 
the various Roman Catholic journals, that by the dissemina- 
tion of Lutheran Bibles among the Roman Catholic popu- 
lation, the Britishand Foreign Bible Society is endeavouring 
to convert the Roman Catholics to Protestantism, would 
by the mode here proposed, really acquire an appearance 
of being well founded. My own personal character and 

reputation, as well as my adherence to canonical order, 
would immediately be degraded ; the extensive operations 
which I hare hitherto carried on for the dissemination of 
the Bible among Roman Catholics, and which God has 
most visibly blessed, would be put an end to and destroyed. 
Hence, not to act lightly against the high calling of the 
Lord, I would rather confine myself to the distribution of 
the New Testament, which has been so abundantly blessed 
by God, than curtail or wholly destroy the sphere of my 
usefulness, by goffering my version of the Old Testament 
to appear in the form proposed to me. In fine, I esteem it 
to be a most sacred duty, to prevent as much as in me ties, 
the good already achieved by the distribution of half a 
million of New Testaments, from being irretrievably sacri- 
ficed, (as I apprehend it must be,) by the circulation of my 
translation of the Old Testament, separate from the apo- 
cryphal books. When, at the same time, I call to mind 
the numberless letters which I have received, and am daily 
receiving from Roman Catholics, both of the clergy and 
laity, all breathing the strongest desire to possess my trans- 
lation of the Old Testament when completed, and which 
in fact the whole Roman Catholic public in Germany seems 
anxious to obtain, I am convinced that no other learned 
Roman Catholic, acquainted with Rome and its hierarchy, 
will venture to publish a version from the original or after 
the Vulgate, and without notes and comments, and still less 
without the apocryphal books, the consequence of which 
will be, that the Roman Catholics will be unable to procure 
the Bible complete. When under this impression, I advert 
to the wide, the very wide field which appears to be opened 
for us among Roman Catholics, by means of the dissemina- 
tion of the whole Bible, translated from the original, and 
arranged according to the Roman Catholic order of the 
books ; and contemplate the gates of heaven as thereby 
opened to the whole Roman Catholic church, and so many 
of our redeemed brethren at present sitting in darkness and 
the shadow of death, it is hardly possible for me to contain 
myself; and I feel irresistibly impelled, in the name of the 
Lord, and for the sake of what has already been done for 
the good of the cause I am advocating, to call upon the 
venerable Parent Society, and to conjure every member of 
the committee in the name of the Redeemer himself, to 
make an exception from the rule in your resolution respect- 
ing the Apocrypha." — 


. " Oh ! may the redemption of the thousands and thous- 
ands of our brethren among the Roman Catholics, who 
thirst after the whole Bible, and hunger after that bread of 
life which no one gives them — may it, like the blood of the 
redemption, and purchase of the Saviour himself, weigh 
heavily in the scale, and decide the resolutions of the com- 
mittee in favour of my proposals and wishes, which are so 
forcibly re-echoed in the sighs of millions of forlorn Roman 
Catholics ! 

" And thou, Lord, deign to hear mine and their 
prayers ! Let mine and their cry ascend unto thee! Pro- 
nounce thy Almighty, "Relight!" and add thereto thy 
Amen. Fiat. Hallelujah. 

(Signed) Leander Van Ess." 

It will be observed, that the reason why Dr. Leander 
Van Ess refuses to adopt their recommendation, is the im- 
possibility of his leaving out the apocryphal books, because 
it would affect "the order and succession of the Biblical 
books, which had for so many years been prescribed, 
followed and observed" in the Popish Versions of the Old 
Testament ; and that unless he provided ** the whole Bible" 
(by which he means the apocryphal books, as well as the 
inspired books,) " translated from the original, and arranged 
according to ike Roman Catholic order of the books, that 
the Roman Catholics would not receive it, because they 
would not consider it as "the whole Bible;" nor would 
they view it as 3 version of their own, but a Lutheran, and 
Protestant version, 

In August following, the Professor renewed his applica- 
tion, in which he directed the attention of the committee to 
the indulgence which they had granted to those Protestant 
Societies, which had appended the apocryphal books to 
the inspired canon ;* and urging them upon that ground 

* It appears that so long since as April 1, 1&12, the sobject respecting 
the Apocrypha was brought under the consideration of the committee by 
a letter from the Rev, C. Cunow, who in acknowledging a grant in aid of 
Lithuanian Bibles, stated, that if the Konisburgh committee " were to 
omit the Apocrypha, it would render their edition unacceptable." The 
foreign Secretary, the Rev. Dr. Steinkopff, soon after made a tour on the 
Continent, and the committee entered upon their minute book the follow- 
ing memorandum, " It was understood that Mr. Steinkopff" wilt urge the 
omission of the Apocrypha." By a resolution of June 7, 1813, after 
considering a letter relating to the Stockholm Society, and one relating to 
the same subject from Russia, from which it appeared a that considerable 
difficulties have accrued in the circulation of Bibles from the Stockholm 


to make an exception from their rule of confining the ap- 
plication of their funds to the circulation of the Old and 
New Testaments only ; by giving their consent to his pub- 
lishing the apocryphal books, according to the Romish 
intermixture of them with the inspired books of the Old 

and Petersburgh Bible Societies, on account of the copies issued by i hem 
not containing the Apocrypha, it was 

" Resolved — That the manner of printing the Holy Scriptures by the 
Bible Societies be left to their discretion, provided they be printed without 
note or comment." — A Statement submitted to the Members of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, %c. by the Rev. G. C. Gorham, B. D, 2nd. 
Edition, p. 27, 28. 

An instance of the apocryphal books having been printed at the expense 
of the Society, occurred respecting the French Bible, (Martin's) 10,000 
copies of which were printed at Toulouse, in 1819, for the Protestants of 
the south of France. The committee of the Paris Bible Society having 
stated that the omission of the Apocrypha would give offence, the com- 
mittee of the Parent Society requested the Rev, Mr. Chabrand, a Protes- 
tant minister at Toulouse, President of the Consistory, and of the Mont- 
auban Bible Society, " to consider the propriety of adding the Apocry- 
pha." M. Chabrand objected to doing so, alleging, that "there Was 
danger of the Protestants confounding the apocryphal with the inspired 
books, and of their being thus Jed to adopt some of the errors of Popery, 
to which they were already too much inclined." The point was then refer- 
red by the committee to M. Chabrand and Professor Kiefer of Paris ; the 
result was, the adoption of the Apocrypha.* This latter gentleman says, 
in aletter to the committee of the Parent Society, Dec. 15, 1824, " We 
must not think that Ibis separation of the apocryphal hooks is so easy a 
thing as some persona imagine. I will only speak here of the French 
churches, which have never had any Bibles which did not include these 
books. When the Bible Society at Paris began its labours six years ago, 
the only Bibles ready for distribution were two editions which had been 
printed by some pious persons at Toulouse and Montauban, which did not 
contain the Apocrypha. With these two editions the Society began its 
distributions, but soon there was a protest on all sides against the omission 
of these books, and a formal demand was made, that the apocryphal* 
books shonld be added to these two editions. In order to conform to the 
French Churches, the Society was obliged to print the Apocrypha at 
Toulouse and at Montauban, and to add them to the editions which had 
already been published there. A little while after, the British and Forei gn 
Bible Society caused Martin's Bible to be printed at Paris, in a small 
form, and gave a great number of copies of it to the Paris Bible Society ; 
but though this edition was advertised in the Annual Reports, and in 
several of the Society's circulars, and though it was offered at a very low 
price, nobody asked for it. The Auxiliary Societies to which these books 
were sent as a gift, received them with reluctance, because the apocryphal 
books were not in them, and the Society was obliged to print them in a 
small form, as the only means of distributing these Bibles. These facts 
appear to me more than sufficient to prove the aversion which the French 
Protestants have for Bibles without the Apocrypha, and the impossibility 
of introducing them into our Churches. 

" But what I have said of Protestant Churches, applies with far greater 
force to the Catholic Churches in France, who would not receive a single 
Bible withont the apocryphal books, which they consider as canonical." t 

* Gorhara's Statement, fce, p. 30. 
t Remark's of Rev, II. Venn, p. 4. 


Notwithstanding the rigid adherence of the Committee 
to their fundamental Rule respecting the New Testament, 
when Dr. Leander Van Ess first solicited their assistance, 
and notwithstanding too, they had resolved, on the 19th 
August, 1823, to withhold grants to Foreign Protestant 
Societies, unless for the purpose of circulating the Holy 
Scriptures alone, and not for the apocryphal books, 
which those Societies were to purchase from their own 
funds ; they now agreed to make a grant of money 
which would necessarily be applied to the expenses of 
printing the apocryphal books, because of the. impossibility 
of separating or distinguishing them from the inspired books, 
without the object of the translator being totally defeated. 
This grant was accompanied with a request singularly 
inconsistent, " that the money of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society should be applied exclusively to -the paying 
for the canonical books."* 

By this grant the Society solemnly sanctioned the dis- 
tribution of the interspersed apocryphal books among the 
members of the Romish Church. They had long before 
this encouraged a similar version of the Scriptures in 
Russia, for the use of members of the Greek church. In 
the year 1813, the President, Lord. Teignmouth, addressed 
the metropolitan of that church, to ascertain whether 
the assistance of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
towards printing a cheap edition jof the Russian or Scla- 
vonian Bible, would be acceptable ? The Russian Bible 
Society had been formed with the sole object of distributing 
the Old and New Testaments throughout the Russian 
empire in all languages except the Sclavonian : "for this 
version," writes Prince Galitzin, "a particular privilege is 
reserved to the holy Synod "-f Soon after, however, the 
Moscow Society was formed, the chief object of which was 
to print the Sclavonian Bible. One is ready to ask, Could 
the Members of the parent Committee,. could the late eloquent 
Church Secretary have known that this version of the holy 
Synod had the apocryphal books intermingled with the 
sacred text, after the manner of the Septuagint, from which 
it was translated? Surely there was no just ground for 
rejoicing on account of this gross departure from the funda- 
mental rules of the Society, Mr. Owen says of this 

• Statement of the Edinburgh Committee, p, 5. 
+ Ninth Annual Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society, p. 04. 


measure that it gave the last finish to the Petersburg Bible 
Society. " By authorizing," says he, " the dissemination 
of the Sclavonian Scriptures, a deficiency was supplied 
■which would have greatly abridged its usefulness ; the 
entire population of the empire, both -native aud foreign, 
was now brought within the scope of its benevolent pro- 
visions."* Had it been made known in the Reports of the 
Society that the apocryphal books in any form had been 
paid for by the funds raised for circulating the Scriptures 
alone, there can be no doubt that a large proportion of the 
members would have strongly objected to such measures. 



While the reformation from Popery was proceeding in 
Germany, Luther and his noble contemporaries found it 
necessary to have the books of the inspired oracles 
strongly distinguished from the apocryphal books, so that 
they resolved to have a new translation from the original 
Hebrew and Greek, instead of imitating the popish trans- 
lators, who had made the Vulgate, or Latin edition of 
Jerome, the basis of their labours .-f 

* This version includes some books which are rejected even by the 
Romish church: the 3rd of Maccabees, and the 3rd of Esdras. In an 
edition of it printed at Osbrog, 1581, in folio, the following was added to 
the former of these : This Third book of Maccabees is not found in other 
Bibles, not even in the Sclavonic themselves, nor in the Littixh, only in the 
Greek and Bohemian, but we were unwilling to omit it. In the edition 
of 1815, assisted by the funds of our Bible Society, this note has dis- 
appeared, so that even the third book of Maccabees has been raised to the 
unsuspected character of an inspired book.— A Statement, &c. by Rev. 
C. G. Gorham, p. 30. 

t Jerome also translated the books of Judith and Tobit, from the 
Chaldee, which form a part of the Vulgate copy of the Apocrypha. 
11 Jerome was a rapid and voluminous writer. The translation of Tobit 
was finished in one day."* Ought he not at the close of this day's 
labour to have exclaimed with the celebrated General, " / have lost a 

* Pritleaux's Counec. vol. ii, book J, p, 53. 


By this plan the Protestants avoided the intermixture 
of the canonical with the apocryphal books found in the 
Vulgate, and of all the versions made from it ; " collecting," 
as an old writer expresses it, H in one bundle at the end, 
those books which ■ are called apocryphal." These were 
distinguished, being placed between the Old and New 
Testament, by the following title :— " Apocrypha, that is, 
Boohs which are not to be considered as equal to Holy 
Scripture, and yet are useful and good to be read." 
This German edition was printed in 1551.* 

In the year 1545, a Protestant version was published in 
the French language, in which the apocryphal books were 
placed at the end of the Bible, as in that of Luther. In 
the introduction prefixed to these books, it is said, — '* We 
Jrnve separated them and set them aside, that they may 
the better be known, to the intent that men may know of 
which books witness ought to be received and which 

In the year 1526 (only nine years from Luther's first 
breaking off from the Church of Rome) there was printed 
at Strasburg, by Cephaleus, an edition of the Greek Sep- 
tuagint, of the Old and New Testaments, with a separated 
Apocrypha. The editor was Johannes Lonicerus, Professor 
at Marburg. The following is the list of, and the order of 
the books called Apacryphcf. " Tobjt, Judith, Baruch, 
Epistle of Jeremiah, Song of Three Children, Esdras, 
Wisdom of Solomon, "Wisdom of Sirach, Susannah, Bel 
and <Jie Dragon, Maccabees." (Josippus on the Maccabees.) 
Bv comparing this list with that in any early edition of the 
English Bible, or with the list in the authorized version, it 
will be seen that several books are wanting, which later 
translators have added. In the preface, the editor professes 
to have followed Luther " in the partition and order of the 
books and therefore' had collected in one bundle at the 
end those books which are called apocryphal." This was 
so provoking to the Papists, that Mora, the Komish editor 
of the LXX. says, " Lonicerus, by a wicked boldness, 
tore the books which Luther had esteemed apocryphal 
from the body of the others, and placed them at the end 
of the Bible, giving them the name of Apocrypha. ' Ce- 
phaleus, the printer, in 1529 was induced by the opposition 

» Gorham's Statement, p. 13. 
+ It is supposed this introduction was written by Calvin i it was intro- 
duced into the edition of Cianmer's Bible of 1539. 


of the Papists, to omit the names of the editors, Lonicerus 
and Luther.* 

The separation of the canonical books was found to be 
essential to the Protestant cause ; the Papists had appealed 
to the apocryphal books with as much confidence as if 
they had been inspired oracles ; and the Reformers, with 
Luther at their head, having rejected all human traditions, 
and all merely ecclesiastical writings, as authority for 
matters either of faith or practice, rebuked their argu- 
ments drawn from such a source, by saying of them, as 
our John Wickliff had said of each book of the Apocrypha, 
"This be no book of belief." In the conference between 
Cajetane and Luther, the former having urged the opinion 
of St. Thomas, Luther laconically replied, " The authority 
of the Holy Scripture was to be preferred far before his."+ 

The important sentiment that the inspired Scriptures, and 
those Scriptures alone, are the religion of Protestants, 
cannot be too often repeated. Our CANON, the rule, the 
only rule of faith and practice is this v—" Ye are bnilt 
upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus 
Christ himself," the only head of the church, " being the 
chief corner stone." A good writer has said with great 
propriety : — " This is the rule, the complete and the only 
rule to Christians and Protestants, containing all things 
necessary to be believed and practised ; the judge of con- 
troversies ; the standard to which we must appeal in our 
disputes about articles of faith, and by which our doctrines 
must be measured. — " I add," says he, "as the Scripture 
is the rule, so every man must judge of its meaning for 
himself, (taking in all the help he can, both divine and 
human,) otherwise it would be no rule to him, and I stick 
not to say, this is the grand article of Protestantism, which 
we can never forsake without giving up our cause, and 
falling back again into all the absurdities of implicit faith 
and blind obedience."^ 

Dr. Rainolds, in his " Six Conclusions handled at tha 
Act in St. Marie's Church, Oxford, 13th of July, 1579," 
proving " The Holy Scriptures teacheth the church all 
things necessary to salvation ;" and that " The militant 
church may erre both in maners and doctrine," exclaims, 
" Avaunt ye Trent-counsell fathers, and ye Papists by 

» Edition of 1526 in the British Museum. 

t Sleidan's history of the Reformation, p. 7. 

iBennt't's Memorial of the Reformation, chap. i. p. 7. 


whom traditions besides Scripture are falsely reputed to be 
necessarie to salvation." — Again, " Pardon me, St. Cy- 
prian, I would gladly believe thee, but that believing thee 
I should not believe the Gospel ; but whether we should 
believe God or man, let the Papists judge !"* 

Having stated the reasons why the Keformers judged it 
essentially necessary to make a marked distinction between 
the books of the Scripture and those which had always 
been considered apocryphal, it will be proper to give some 
account of the Vulgate edition of the Bible, and of the 
Popish versions of it. 

In this translation, the work of the learned and inde- 
fatigable Jerome, in the fourth century, the inspired and 
the apocryphal books were interspersed or intermingled. 
Td prevent, however, -any one from concluding, the apo- 
cryphal books were of equal authority with the other books, 
Jerome had prefixed to each of those spurious books a 
short preface, informing his reader of its peculiar character, 
stating that it was merely an ecclesiastical or human 
writing, and not written as the Scriptures were, by the 
inspiration of God. To the Epistle of Jeremiah, including 
that of Baruch, he had prefixed a Prologue, called his 
" head piece," dr " helmeted preface," for the purpose 
expressly of distinguishing the apocryphal from the inspired 
books. He states explicitly, that the only reason why 
he retained these " fables," was to meet the prejudices of 
the vulgar, and therefore, according to his custom, "he 
had marked each of them with a spit or dagger, placed 

Up to tie period of the Reformation, the copies made 
from the Vulgate contained the Prefaces and maris of 

• Rainold's Six Conclusions, &c. p. 674, 690. 
+ Gregory Martin, one of the Rhemish translators, says of the English 
Protestant versions :— " Do they not reject certain pieces of Daniel and 
• Hester, because they are not found in Hebrew f" to which his opponent, 
" ^>r. Fulke replies:— "As for pieces of Daniel and Hester, we _ reject 
■bne; but only we disoern that which was written by Daniel, indeed 
from that which was written by Theodotion the false Jew: — We 
may be told upon St. Jerome's authority, to reject whatsoever is not 
found iu the Canon of the Jews, written in Hebrew, or Chaldee, 
for whatever was such St. Jeromt did thrust through with a spit or 
obelisk, as not worthy to be received. — Jerome testifieth that Daniel in 
the Hebrew hath neither the story of Susannah, nor the humus of their 
children, nor the fable of Bel and the Dagon ; which we (saith he) because 
they are dispersed throughout the whole world, have added, setting a spit 
before them, which thrusteth them through, lest we should seem among 
the ignorant to have cut off a great part of the book." — Fulke's Answer 
to Gregory Martin, &c. p. 22. 


Jerome prefixed to the title of each apocryphal book ; and 
as a further distinction of these books, there was after- 
wards added, about the ninth century, a Preface, to what was 
called the " ordinary gloss," or short commentary, in which 
the inspiration of the apocryphal writings was pointedly 
denied ; while at the head of each of the books it was 
expressly asserted, " This is not in the Canon." 

The subject respecting the apocryphal books underwent 
considerable discussion, as might be seen in Father 
Simon's and Jurieu's Histories of the Council of Trent. 
From the latter, who was an eminent French minister, we 
extract the following brief account of their proceedings 
upon that subject : 

" Upon the article of the canonical books there were 
four opinions : some were for ranking them into two classes, 
that in the first should be placed the books which had never 
been contested, and in the second those which had ; this 
was the opinion of Imigi di Catanec, a Jacobin, who 
grounded it upon the authorities of St. Jerome and Cardinal 
Cajetane, who had both done so. Some were for having 
them divided into three orders ; the first of those of which 
no doubt was ever made ; the second, of those which had 
been heretofore questioned, but which now are received ; 
the third, of those of which no perfect certainty was ever 
pretended to. The third opinion was for reducing them 
into a catalogue without any distinction ; and, in a word, 
some were for naming expressly those books which had been 
controverted, to the end they may be declared canonical. 
The book of Baruch gave them more trouble than the 
rest, because no Pope nor Council had ever cited it for 
canonical ; but a certain person made a shameful remark, 
that the Church read part of it in the desk, and that was 
enough to canonize it."* 

The Papists were too quick sighted not to perceive that 
the grand principle adopted by the Protestants as to the > 
perfection of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, 
for all matters of faith and practice, without the aid of 
tradition or the apocryphal writings, was laying the axe at 
the root of their system. Some of their chief dogmas had 
been supported by quotations from the Apocryphal books, as 
the doctrine of purgatory, and the invocation of Angels, &.c. 
Bringing every thing to the test of the pure oracles of God, 
was a fire that consumed their wood, and hay and stubble — 

* Jurieu, book iii. p. 81. 1784. 


things Founded on human authority. Bossuet, in a corres- 
pondence with a Protestant, respecting the Canon of Scrip- 
ture, referring to the Council of Trent, which was assembled 
at this crisis, says that the conduct of the Protestants in 
separating the apocryphal books was intolerable ; " it was 
time to expose this outrage, and to put an end to discus- 
sions by an eternal anathema." 

The shocking decree of this council, which anathematized 
all who would not receive the books of " Bel and the 
Dragon," with as much reverence as they did the prophecy 
of Isaiah, was passed on the 5th of April, 1545, about 
three months from its first assembling. The following is a 

"A Decree concerning Canonical Scripture.* 
" The most holy Oecumenick and general council of 
Trent, assembled lawfully in the spirit of holiness, the 
aforesaid three Legates of the apostolic see presiding 
therein, having this always before their eyes, that all errors 
being taken away, the purity of the gospel, might be pre- 
served in the church, which promise was delivered unto us 
before, by the prophets in the Old Testament, and delivered 
again anew, by the mouth of our Lord Jesus Christ him- 
self, the only begotten Son of God, who afterwards com- 
manded his disciples to go preach it unto all nations as the 
only saving truth ; and seeing this verity and discipline is 
contained in the written word, and in the unwritten tradi- 
tions of the fathers, which the apostles received from the 
mouth of Christ himself, and descended down to us by the 
apostles themselves, who had it dictated to them by the 
Holy Ghost, following the examples of the orthodox fathers 
of the church, and reverencing all the books, as well of the 
Old as New Testament, of both of which God is the 
immediate author, as also the traditions themselves, be- 
* longing both to faith and manners ; dictated as it were from 

* " It 13 one of the fundamental principles of Popery, that the scrip- 
ture in itself, without the interpretation, testimony and authority of the 
church is not a sufficient foundation of faith for private christians. 
Baily the Jesuit, in his catechism of controversies made by command of 
the Archbishop of Bourdeaux, puts this question :— To whom doth it 
belong to determine of canonical books f The answer, To the church, with- 
out whose authority I should no more believe St, Mattliew than Titus Livius. ' 
Horrible as is this. sentiment, it was the principle acted upon by the 
council of Trent, by which accordingly, they infused inspiration into the 
apocryphal books.— Tie Nullity of the Romish Faith, by Mattliew Poole 


the moutli of Christ, or from the Holy Spirit, and preserved 
in the Catholic church iu a continual succession ; hath 
therefore thought convenient to publish a catalogue of those 
Holy Books which are canonical, lest possibly there might 
arise any doubt about it, which they were the synod ap- 
proved of as such ; of which take the following account : 
of the Old Testament, the live books of Moses, viz. Genesis, 
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, then Joshua, 
Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two books of 
Chronicles, the first and second books of Esdras which is 
called Nehemiak, Tobit, Judith, Hesther,* Job, Psalms 
of David, in number a hundred and fifty ; Proverbs of 
Solomon, Ecclesiastes, or the Preacher, Song of Solomon, 
Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and 
the Prophesie of Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel,f the twelve 
■minor prophets, viz. Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, 
Micah, Naum, Habakkuck, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zacha- 
riah, and Malachiah, and the two books of the Mac- 

The books of the New Testament are then enumerated 
as in the received version ; and it is added :- e ~* t And if any 
one reading over these books in all their parts, as the cus- 
tom is in the Catholick church, being in the old vulgaf 
Latin edition, does not hold them for sacred and Canonical : 
and knowing the before specified traditions, does industri- 
ously contemn them, let him be Anathema, or accursed.''^ 

This was the first time the apocrypbal books had been 
considered as of equal authority with the Scriptures them- 
selves. Till this period many of the Popish doctors had 
thought them to be of human authority, of doubtful im- 
port, and at best but ecclesiastical, and not inspired writ- 
ings. Jht Pin, in his ecclesiastical history says, "I will 

* To the Book of Either, is added " the Rest of Esther." 

t After the 24th verse of the third chapter of Daniel, "the prayer of 
the three children ;" at the end of Daniel, " the book of Susanna/'* 

t " The canon of Scripture imposed upon us by the church of Home, they 
say is according to an apostolical tradition, and yet their own prime 
authors confess the most ancient fathers to be on our [the Protestant] 
side, at least as to several of their apocryphal books: Sixtus Sinensis 
gives them to us in general : The ancient fathers did hold the contro- 
verted books to be uncanonical ; Btllarmine gives us Epiphanius, Hilary, 
Ritjjinus, and Hierome; Canus gives us Origen, Demascun, Athanasius, 
and Melito, a famous and ancient father, who flourished 170, and was 
a man of great judgment and admirable sanctity, iSixfug Sinensis, 
who purposely travelled to the eastern churches, (where the apostles had 

* Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, London, Quarto, printed for T. Y. 168?. 


not speak of the histories of Susanna and Bel, that are in 
Daniel, and have heen rejected as false and -Apocryphal 
by several of the ancients, since I have already discoursed 
largely about them : — The writers referred to are Africanus, 
Eusebius, and Appolinarus. How truly shocking then 
was it for the Popish doctors at Trent to -have decreed that 
all the apocryphal books were "Sacred and Canonical, 
dictated as. it. were from the mouth of Christ, or of the 
Holy Spirit." They were from this time by all members 
of the Romish Church, to be considered as making " part 
of the Canonical Books ;" and if any one denied them to 
he so, " that they ought to be accursed." 
, This, then, is the edition of the Vulgate put forth by 
Papal authority, — the authorized version of the antichris- 
tian church of Rome ; and this is the work which Dr. 
Leander Van Ess calls the "whole Bible;" — and which 
he describes as '* the order and succession of the biblical 
books, which hasfbrso many ages been prescribed, followed 
and preserved." And it is a translation, according to this 
order in which every Papist is commanded to behove, that 
the books of Susanna, and of Bel and the Dragon were dic- 
tated* as it, were by the mouth of Christ or of the Holy 
Spirit, and to believe it too. at the peril, of his damnation ! 
Yes, incredible at it may appear, the Committee of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, who are appointed to 
make a proper application of the immense funds entrusted 
to their care for printing 1 the Holy Scriptures, "without 
note or comment," have voted money for encouraging the 
circulation, as the WORD of God, even of those apocry- 
phal hooks, which no Protestant ever considered inspired 
writings; and wMcb many have not hesitated to designate 

erroneous, ahsurd, and wicked. : 

Speaking on the Canon of the Old Testament, Dr. 
Gray says, in his Introduction to his " Key" — "These 
twenty-two books have an unquestionable title to be con- 
sidered as the genuine and inspired productions of those 
authors to whom they are severally assigned. They eon- 
tain prophecies, and every Other intrinsic proof of their 

their principal residence and employment) to learn out the true canon, 
brings a non est inventus for the apocryphal books, and returns with 
the very same canon which we own, so that in him we have the testimony 
of all those flourishing and apostolical churches to which TertulUan 
directs us for the discovery of truth."— The Nullity of the Romish Faith, 
by Matthew Poole, p 1 " (> 


divine origin : they were received as authentic by the 
Hebrews, and pronounced to be inspired Oracles by the 
evangelical writers, who cite them as complete and uncor- 
rupted. ■ They were likewise considered as exclusively 
canonical in the Christian Church, during the first four 
centuries, after which .some provincial councils attempted 
to increase the number of some apocryphal books, which 
however they annexed as only of secondary authority, till the 
council of Trent declared them to be equally infallible in 
doctrine and in truth."* 

To this judicious and correct statement, we subjoin in its 
confirmation, and for the further elucidation of the sub- 
ject, the opinion of that ornament of the English Bench, 
the pious and learned Bishop Hall of Norwich, in his 
work called, " No Peace with Rome." In the chapter 
entitled, " Concerning the Canon of Scripture," he thus 
speaks: "Now(leastlbe too tedious)itis time for me from 
these points, which do directly concern ourselves, to hasten 
unto those, which do more closely touch the majesty of God ; 
and doe, as it were, send plain challenges into heaven ; and 
those doe either respect the Scriptnre, which is his ex- 
pressed word ; or Christ, which is his natural and consubstan- 
tiall word, or lastly, the worship due unto his name. 

" And, first, the Scripture complains justly of three maine 
Wrongs offerred to it. The first, of addition to the 
Canon; the second, of detraction from the sufficiency of 
it; the third of hanging all the authority thereof upon the 
sleeve of the church. For of that corrupt translation of 
Scripture, which the Trent-Divines have made onely and 
fully authenticate, I forbear purposely to speak; although it 
were easy to show (that which Reuchline, following the 
steps of Hierom hath averred) that the Hebrews drink of 
the Well head, the Greeks of the streame, and the Latines 
of the puddle ; neither will I so much as touch the injurious 
inhibition of those books to the Laity. Who can endure a 
peece of new cloth to be patched to an olde garment ? Or 
what can follow hence but that the rent be made worse ? 
Who can abide, that against the faithful information of 
the Hebrewes, against the cleer testimonies of Melito, Cy- 
rill, Athanasius, Origin, Hilary, Hierom, Ruffinus, Nazi- 
enzen, against their own doctors, both of the middle and 
later age ; Sixe whole books should by their fatherhoods 

* Gray's Key, Introduction, p. 9. 


of Trent, be, under the pain of a curse, imperiously 
obtruded upon God, and his Church ? Whereof some 
propose to their readers no better than magical iugglings, 
others bloody self-murders, others lying fables, and others 
heathenish rites, not without public applause in the rela- 
tion. These indeed Cdietan, ingenuously,, as his fashion 
is (according to that which hee had learned of liierome), 
would persuade us to have been admitted onelv by the aun- 
cients into the canon of manners, not of faith. And surely 
there be many precepts in Siracides, the counterfeit Salo- 
mon, and Esdras, which savour of excellent wisdom ; but 
I wonder what kind of good manners can be learned from 
such tike histories, even by those novices to whom Athana- 
sius bequeathes those books. Well may I say of these, as 
that Chian servant of his master (which sould his wine and 
dranke his lees), whiles now they have good, they seek for 
nought: but let these bopkes (questionables to Epiphanius) 
be all sacred ; let them be (according to the meaning of the 
eouncill of Carthage, and of Austin, so oft cited to this pur- 
pose) soever canonical ; yet what man or angell dare presume 
make them divine? We know full well, how great irapietie 
it is to father upon the God of heaven the weak* concep- 
tions of human wit; neither can wee bee any whith moored 
wifhthe idle crack of the Tridentine curse, whiles we heare 
God thundering in our ears : if any man adde unto these 
words, God shall add unto him, the plagues written in this 

From another of the Bishop's works, called, "A Serious 
Disswasive from Popery, to W. D. revolted," we extract 
the following. " Our question is, whether all those bookes 
which in our Bibles are stiled Apocryphall, and are put after 
the rest by themselves, are to bee received as the true 
Scriptures of God? Heare first the voice of the olde 
church : to let passe that clear and pregnant testimonie of 
Melito Sardensis, in his epistle to Onesimus, cited by 
Eitsebius. Let Cyprian or Rujjinus rather speake in the 
name of all: of the Olde Testament (saith he) first were 
written the five bookes of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Levi- 
ticus, Numbers, Deuteronomie ; after these the booke of 
Joshuah, the sonne of Nun,* and that of the Judges, 
together with Ruth; after that were the four bookes of the 

* No Peace with Romp, written first in Latin by J. H. and now En- 
glished. London; 1014. Works, ful 868, 8<i9. 


Kings, which the Hebrews reccon but two ; of the Chro- 
nicles, which is called the booke of dayes ; and of Ezra, 
are two bookes ; which of them are accounted but single, 
and the booke of Esther. Of the prophets there is Esay, 
Hieremie, Ezekiell, and Daniell, and besides one booke 
which contains the twelve smaller prophets. Also Job, and 
the Psalms of David are single books ; of Solomon there are 
three bookes delivered to the church, the Proverbes, Eccle- 
siastes, Song of Songs. In these they have shut uppe the 
number of the bookes of the Olde Testament. Of the 
New, there are four Gospels, of Matthew, Mark, Luke, 
and John ; the Acts of the Apostles, written by Luke; of 
Paul the Apostle fourteen Epistles; of the Apostle Peter 
two Epistles ; of James the Lord's brother and Apostle, 
one; of Jude, one; of John, three; lastly the Revelation 
of John. These are they which the fathers have accounted 
within the Canon; by which they would have the assertions 
of our faith made good : but wee must knowe there are 
other bookes, which are called by the ancients, not Cano- 
nieall, but Ecclesiasticall, as the "Wisdome of Solomon, and 
another booke of Wisdome, which is called of Jesus the 
sonne of Sirach ; which booke of the Latin, is tearmed by 
a general name Ecclesiasticus ; of the same, rank is the 
booke of Toby, and Judith, and the bookes of the Mac- 
eabees:— Thus farre that Father ; so Hierome after he had 
reconned up the same number of books with us in their 
order, hath these words : 'this prologue of mine (saith he,) 
may serve as a well defenced entrance to all the books 
■which I have turned out of Hebrewe into Latine ; that we 
may knowe, that whatsoever is besides these is Apocryphall ; 
therefore that booke which is entitled Salomon's Wisdome, 
and the book of Jesus the sonne of Sirach, and Judith, and 
Tobias, and Pastor, are not Canonieall ; the first book o. 
the Maccabees I have found in Hebrewe, the second is 
Greeke ; which booke {saith hee,) indeed the church readeth 
but receiveth not as Canonieall.' The same recconing is 
made by Origen in Eusebius, word for word. The same 
by Epiphanius, by Cyrill, by Athanasius, Gregory Na- 
zianzen, Damascen ; yea by Lyranus, both Hugoes, Caie- 
tan, Carthusian, and Montanus himself, &c. 

" All of them with full consent rejecting these same 
Apocryphall books with us. Now heare the present Church o. 
Rome in her owne words, thus ; ' The holy Synode of 
Trent hath thought good to sette down with this decree a 


ijst catalogue of bookes of Holy Scripture; leest any 
man should make doubt which they be which are received by 
the Synod ; and they are these underwritten, of the Olde 
Testament, &c. 

' And if any man shall not receive these whole hookes 
with all theparts of them, as they are wont to be read in the 
Catkolicke Church; and as they are had in the olde vulgar 
Latins edition ; for Holy and Canonical!, let him be ac- 
cursed; Thus she; "Judge yon now of our age, and say, 
whether the opinion of the aancient church (that is ours) be 
not a direct enemy to Popery, and flatly accursed by the 

It is a solemn observation of a correct writer, speaking 
of the Canon of Scripture;—" Some enlarge it as the 
Papists, who hold that divers other books, called by us 
Apocrypha (i. e. hidden) do belong to the Old Testament, 
and are of the same authority as the others before named ; 
and they add their traditions and unwritten word, equalling 
it with the Scriptures ; — these are accursed. Rev. xxii. 8." 

Speaking of the council of Trent this author adds, 
'* Nothing was there determined which was not first con- 
cluded at Rome by the Pope in the College of Cardinals, 
and sent from Rome to Trent; whereupon this proverb 
arose, Spiriium Sanctum Roma per parum mitli Triden- 
tum. The Holy Ghost came to Trent packed up in a cloke- 

This pious author, who published his work in the year 
1654, says, "We hope therefore since the Apocrypha are 
justly rejected out of the Canon, that hereafter they will 
neither have (he honour to be bound in our Bibles nor read 
in. our Churches."f 

Dr. Cosins, Bishop of Durham, in his "Scholastical 
History of the Canon," published 1657, says, when speaking 
of the council of Trent : " The church of Rome thought fit 
to compose and dress up a new additional Canon thereof for 
themselves, in their late council of Trent,— then it was one 
of the first things they did to lay this foundation for all their 
new religion which they built upon it ; — that the apocryphal 
writings and traditions of men, were not inferior nor less 
canonical, than the sovereign dictates of God, as well for 

* A Serious Dissuasive, &c. Works :— p. 813, 814. 

t A System of Divinity by Edward Leigh, Esq. Mailer of Arts, of 
Magdalen Hal! in Oxford. Folio, p. 58. 


the confirmation of doctrinal points pertaining to faith, as 
for the ordering of life and manners ; but that both the one 
and the other ought to be embraced with the same affection 
of piety, and received with the like religious reverence, not 
making any difference betwixt them." — Again, " But for 
the Old Testament, herein the Canon of the council of 
Trent hath made the Roman Church to differ both from 
itself (considered as it was in former ages) and from all 
other churches besides, by adding to the Old Canon 
(strictly and properly so taken) six entire books, which were 
never in it before; that is to say, Tohit, Ecclesiasticus, 
Wisdom, Judith, the first and second books of the Mac- 
cabees, together with certain other pieces of Baruch, 
Esther, and Daniel ; all which before the time of this new 
council werewont to be severed even among themselves from 
the Canonical Scripture.* "It is not in the power of the 
Roman Church, nor any other to make new articles of faith, 
or to make any books sacred and canonical scripture, (so as 
to be the binding rules of our faith and practice) which were 
not such in their own nature before, that is outwardly 
inspired by God, and by his authority ordained to be such 
from the time, when they were first written.f 

It is quite unnecessary to add more testimonies on this 
important topic of the true Canon of Scripture. Surely 
if authority should weigh on any subject, it is here; where it 
does not relate to matters of opinion, but of facts. The 
council of Trent made a new Bible, and the Pope sanctioned 
the decree ; " as God sitting in the the temple of God, 
shewing himself that he is God." " Holy men of old 
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost," and there- 
fore what they said is binding on our consciences, whether 
relating to matters of faith or of practice. But shall 
impious men arrogating infallibility, presume thus to assert 
divine prerogatives, and assume divine authority, by pre- 
tending to impart inspiration to these mere human produc- 
tions ? Rather shall enlightened Protestants of the nine- 
teenth century, by aiding the circulation of this false 
Canon of Scripture, say, " Who is like unto the 
beast! who is able to make war with him?" Rev. xiii. 4. 

* Cosin's of the Caaou, p. 6. + ibid. p. 223. 




The Edinburgh Bible Society was founded a few years 
after the Parent Society ; for the purpose of rendering it 
assistance, as an Auxiliary Institution. From its com- 
mencement, up to the close of the last year, the greatest 
harmony prevailed between the two Societies ; when the 
event related in the last chapter, of Dr, Leander Van 
Ess, having been assisted to print the Bible in the German 
language, with apocryphal books intermingled, according 
to the decree of the council of Trent, and which were not 
to be distinguished by any mark, or direction, by which they 
might be known from the inspired books, led to such u 
serious misunderstanding, that at present the Edinburgh 
Society has resolved to remit no more money to the funds 
of the Parent Institution, 

The following Extracts from the Edinburgh Society's 
Statement, relating to the circulation of the Apocrypha, by 
the British and Foreign Bible Society,* will put the reader 
in possession of the reasons which have led them to adopt 
such a hostile and decided a line of conduct towards the 
Parent Society. — They say, the original principle, on 
which the British and Foreign Bible Society and its kin- 
dred Institutions were established, was, that they should 
apply their funds to the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, 
without note or comment. And if any one circumstance 
has more than another led, under the divine blessing, to 
their prosperity and general acceptance with all classes of 
the public, it has been the simplicity and unexceptionable 
nature of this their primary object. 

Recently, however, the Committee of the Edinburgh 
Bible Society were given to understand, that another ob- 
ject had be£n conjoined with this, by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, to which exceptions of a very grave 
nature lay ; namely, that aid had been afforded iroin its 

* Sold by Hamilton, Paternoster Row, 


funds towards the circulation, along 1 with the Scriptures, 
.of the apocryphal books, — a purpose to which they be- 
lieved that numerous Auxiliary Societies and Subscribers 
neither imagined that they had been contributing, nor 
would, had they been aware of the fact, have ever lent 
their assistance. 

The Committee of the Edinburgh Bible Society, in con- 
sequence, put themselves into correspondence with the 
British and Foreign Bible Society; and the result of their 
inquiries will appear from certain resolutions adopted on 
Ihe 17th January, 1825, by the Committee, which will be 
found sufficiently explicit to render further preliminary detail 

The attention of the Society was called to the subject 
<of the appropriation of the funds of the Bible Society, so 
as to aid the circulation of the Apocrypha on the Continent ; 
when the following facts came under the notice of the 

1. That in the month of August last, an application was 
made by the Reverend Leander Van Ess to the Parent 
Society, for authority to print, at their expense, his transla- 
tion of the Old Testament Scriptures, with permission from 
them to intersperse and. mix up with them, according to 
the order adopted by the Romish Church, the apocryphal 
books ; the additional expense thus incurred being defrayed 
by himself and his friends; and that the Parent Society 
had voted a grant of money for that purpose. 

2. That this grant of money for such a purpose directed 
this Society's attention to the point in question ; when they 
learned, forthe first time, that, till a late period, it had been, 
to some extent, the practice of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, in granting Bibles for the use of Members 
of the Romish Church, to allow of this intermixture of 
inspired and apocryphal books; in proof of which, editions 
of the Spanish and Italian Bible, in which the apocryphal 
books were so interspersed,, were laid upon the table. 

3. That the general practice of the Foreign Protestant 
Bible Societies has been to print the Apocrypha with thefr 
Bibles; and that, up to. the year 1822, it has been the 
practice of the British and Foreign Bible Society, to 
vote grants of money to, such Societies, in order to pay 
for the printing of bolh the Holy Scriptures and the Apo- 


4. That in 1823, an objection -was advanced to this 
practice by some of the Members of the Parent Society, 
when the following resolution was passed. 

" Resolved— That when grants shall be made by any of 
the Bible Societies in connection with this Institution, 
"which are accustomed to circulate the Apocrypha, it be 
stated to such Societies, that the attention of the Com- 
mittee having been called to the fundamental rule of the 
Society, as limiting the application of its funds to the 
circulation of the Holy Scriptures ; and it appearing that 
this view of the said rule has been taken from the he- 
ginning by the great body of its members ; the Com- 
mittee, anxious on the one hand to keep entire good faith, 
•with all the Members of Society, and on the other, to 
maintain unimpaired, the friendly intercourse which it has 
had the happiness so long to hold with Bible Societies, 
which circulate books esteemed apocryphal in this country, 
request of those Societies, that they will appropriate all 
future grants which they may receive from the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, exclusively to the printing- of the 
books of the Old and New Testament, as generally re- 
ceived in this country, such Societies remaining at full 
liberty to apply their own funds in whatever way, as to the 
printing and circulation of the Apocrypha, it may seem 
good to them,'— in which it is distinctly admitted that ' the 
fundamental Rule of the Society limited the application 
of the funds to the circulation of the Holy Scriptures.' 

5. That since the passing of this Resolution, the Society 
has abstained from paying directly for the Apocrypha in 
anyplace; but that ever since that time the general custom 
of the Foreign Protestant Bible Societies has been the 
same as formerly, to append the Apocrypha to their Bibles ; 
and that, although the aforesaid resolution of August, 1822, 
originated in an avowed desire, as therein expressed, to 
limit the funds of the Society to the sole purpose of circu- 
lating Holy Scripture, and on this point to keep entire good 
faith .with its members,— this resolution has been ever 
since held by the Parent Society as the rule by which 
Foreign Societies, receiving aid from the British and Fo- 
reign Bible Society, were sanctioned in printing the Apo- 
crypha along with the word of God, so long as they 
applied the grants of money from the Society in England 
to pay for the printing of the canonical books; and that 
consequently the circulation of (he Apocrypha was still 


continued to the same extent; and the resolution of 1822 
effected in the practice of the Foreign Societies no altera- 
tion whatever. 

6. That permission having thus been given to append 
the Apocrypha to the Bibles used by the Protestants on 
the Continent, the Reverend Leander Van Ess, eager for 
the diffusion of the Old Testament Scriptures among the 
Members of his Church, invited the Society to recur to the 
former practice of printing the Apocrypha interspersed 
with the sacred books ; and that to this the Parent 
Society objected on account of the terms of the resolution 
of 1822 ; but that, on a subsequent application of Dr. 
Van Ess, in August last, in which he directed their attention 
to the indulgence granted to the Protestant Societies, the 
Parent Society did once more actually sanction the Romish 
intermixture of the Canonical and Apocryphal books ; 
with this formal reservation, that the money of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society should be applied exclusively 
to the paying for the Canonical books. 

7. That, at a subsequent meeting, however, this vote 
had been rescinded; but that the Society, having again 
discussed the merits of the question respecting the circu- 
lation of the Apocrypha, had come, on the 20th of De- 
cember last, to the following resolution ; which resolution 
is to be regarded as the rule of the future proceedings of 
the Society on this subject. 

' That no pecuniary grants be made by the Committee of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society for the purpose of 
aiding the printing and publishing of any edition of the 
Bible in which the Apocrypha shall be [mixed and] inter- 
spersed with the canonical books of Holy Scripture ; and 
that all grants of money to Foreign Societies, which are 
accustomed to publish Bibles [but separate and distinct 
from the canonical books]* containing the Apocrypha, be 
made under the express stipulation and the assurance of 
the parties receiving the same, that such grants shall be 
exclusively applied to printing and publishing the canonical 
books of Scripture only.' - . .w,:\ 

And the Society having maturely considered these facts, 
It was Resolved, 

* The sentences in brackets, are supplied from Mr. Gorlmm's Copy, in 
p. 32, of his pamphlet. 


1. That this Society regards the principle on which the 
British and Foreign Bible Society was foundqd, viz. the 
circulation of Holy Scripture exclusively without note or 
comment, as the essential basis of its existence ; and con- 
siders that nothing short of a strict, avowed, and unequivo- 
cal adherence to that principle will insure its permanent 
unanimity and success. 

2. That the British and Foreign Bible Society stands 
pledged to the circulation of the Holy Scriptures exclu- 
sively, by the language of its fundamental Rule, by the 
express avowal to that effect in the commencement of the 
resolution of August 1822, and by the unvarying tenor of 
its statements in the Beports and other documents of the 
Society, in which it is repeatedly asserted that the Society 
is ' a Bible Society,' ' that it circulates Bibles' ' copies of 
the Scriptures,' 'the Word of God,' ' the books of Holy 
Writ ;' and in which, so far from giving the most distant 
intimation that any other writings are added to these, it is 
affirmed ' that the Society is an Institution which confines 
itself with rigorous exactness to the dissemination of the 
Holy Scriptures,' that ' its sole object is the increase and 
circulation of the books of Holy Writ,' that ' its object 
was to disseminate the Word of God as contained in the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament;' and that 'the 
Society owes its present prosperity, next to the blessing- of 
the most High, to the simplicity of its object, and the zeal, 
fidelity, and perseverance with which that object has been 
pursued, and respectfully solicits all its fellow-labourers and 
friends never to deviate from the plain and avowed object 
of all Bible Societies, the circulation of the Holy Scrip- 
tures without note or comment.' 

3. That this Society holds the circulation of the apo- 
cryphal writings in any way whatever, directly or indirectly, 
through the instrumentality of the funds of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, to be contrary to the express con- 
ditions of the original covenant entered into by that So- 
ciety with the Christian public, and to the solemn asseve- 
rations on the subject of the exclusive distribution of Holy 
Scripture, in which the annual Reports of the Society 
abound ; and while it laments most deeply the evil already 
done in the adoption of a measure so fundamentally at 
variance with the laws and averments of the Society, and 
which it is believed was altogether unknown to the Members 
of the Society in general, it docs respectfully, but most 
solemnly, protest against its farther continuance. 


4. That the British and Foreign Bible Society is riot 
only altogether prohibited by the laws of its existence from 
giving any sanction to the circulation of the Apocrypha, 
but that it cannot do this without incurring the guilt of 
putting a most fearful fraud upon the world, and laying a 
deadly snare for the souls of men ; because the Apocrypha 
is not only an uninspired book, and therefore on a level 
with" other human productions, but far below the level of 
many human compositions, as it is abundantly interspersed 
with falsehoods, false doctrines, superstitions, and con- 
tradictions of itself and of the Word of God, of which a 
few. specimens are annexed;* and because these Apocryphal 
writings, laden as they are with such gross and palpable 
error, do advance a deceitful claim to reverence and atten- 
tion, upon the pretext of their being inspired : so that in 
whatever degree the influence of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society has tended to encourage the circulation of 
these apocryphal writings, it has gone out of its direct and 
legitimate course to give its sanction to a human com- 
position replete with error, which wickedly assumes to be a 
revelation from heaven ; and that this Society deeply regrets 
that the use of snch strong language as appears in the 
Reports of the Parent Society, respecting the exclusive 
circulation of Holy Scripture, should have been accom- 
panied by the distribution of the Apocrypha appended to 
the Scriptures, inasmuch as it has been an indirect ex- 
pression to the world of an opinion which the Society 
certainly did not, and could not entertain, that the claim of 
those writings to inspiration is not altogether unfounded. 

5. That, entertaining these views of the point in question, 
this Society feels compelled to express its sincere regret at 
the tenor of the resolutions passed by the Parent Society 
on the 19th August, 1822, and the 20th Dec. 1824, because 
while they appear to be a disclaimer of the practice of 
circulating the Apocrypha, they are held in fact to be the 
rule, on the strength of which the practice objected to is 
still persevered in, so that these counterfeit and heterodox 
writings are actually appended to by far the greater number 
of those copies of God's Holy Word, which are circulated 
on the Continent at the expense of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society ; and that the real operation of these reso- 
lutions is merely to administer a salvo to the consciences of 

* In an Appendix. 


objectors at home, whilst abroad the evil remains precisely 
tiie same as ever, and those sacred funds which had been 
subscribed upon the express condition, and in the full con- 
fidence, that they should be expended in encouraging 
the circulation of the Holy Seriptures only, are still 
lending an indirect influence to the circulation of vital 

& That this Society conceives also that the course which 
the Parent Society has adopted, by the resolutions of Aug. 
1822, and Dec. 1824, in order to permit to the Foreign 
Protestant Societies the circulation of the Apocrypha, would 
justify a similar practice in respect to the printing and cir- 
culating the notes of Ostervald or Martini, or the human 
comments attached to any other edition of the Scriptures; 
it being evidently in the spirit of those resolutions to say, 
that so long as the Foreign Societies expend the grants of 
the British and Foreign Society in the printing of the 
canonical books of Scripture, they are at liberty to expend 
their own funds in subjoining to those canonical books 
whatever else they please ; and that the circulation of such 
comments, whether doctrinally correct or incorrect, would 
be far less injurious than the circulation of apocryphal 
books, inasmuch as those comments profess to be nothing 
more than the word of man, whilst the Apocrypha goes 
forth among the people under the false name of the Word 
of God. 

7. That this Society is fully aware of the objection — 
hitherto taken for granted by the Committee, but by no 
means proved- — that entirely to exclude the Apocrypha 
from the Bibles circulated by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society would be to terminate its connexion with the Bible 
Societies on the Continent, and to stay that wide and co- 
pious distribution of the Holy Scriptures which has been 
the cause of so much joy ; that this Society questions the 
accuracy of that assertion ; but that, even admitting its' 
truth, the certainty of such a result cannot justify a mea- 
sure which is a direct violation of the original contract of 
the Society with its members, which is at variance with the 
injunctions of the word of God itself, and which not only 
tends to maintain and vindicate the superstitions of some of 
the continental churches, but to bring the word of God into 
contempt ; that it becomes the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, in godly simplicity, and in uncompromising faith- 
fulness, in strict adherence to its charter, and in reliance 
upon the providence of God, still to follow that one plain. 


specific, and unsuspicious course, which will secure to it 
the blessing of God, and the firm patronage of all it* 
friends ; and that, as it appears by the statement of the 
Parent Society itself, that ' the demands upon their gene- 
rosity, and even their justice, very greatly exceed 'all the 
means at their disposal,' it is manifestly incumbent oo the 
British and Foreign Bible Society to carry the word of God 
to those nations where their labours are now, by their own 
admission, at a stand for want of means, and where it 
would be thankfully received pure and unmixed ; and not 
by tacitly sanctioning the false pretensions of an apocryphal 
book, to recognize a principle which that word so solemnly 
condemns, ' Let us do evil that good may come.' 

8. That this Society -do empower their Secretaries to 
transmit a copy of this minute, accompanied by the paper 
on the Apocrypha therein referred to, to the Parent Society 
in London, as their respectful but firm remonstrance against 
the evil of which they complain." 

In consequence it should seem, of the proceedings of the 
Edinburgh Committee, and the alteration made by the 
Committee of the Parent Society in their resolution of the 
20th December, 1824, several respectable clergymen of 
the University of Cambridge, who are members of the 
Bible Society, met in that city, and agreed upon a Protest 
against what they considered an innovation, if not upon the 
strict rules, yet upon the catholic spirit of the Society. 
This was soon after published with the title of " Remarks 
on the propriety of applying the funds of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society to the circulation of such Foreign 
Versions as contain the Apocrypha, in places where no 
other Version will be generally received." The following 
is the history of this proceeding. 

" The British and Foreign Bible Society, from its first 
formation has assisted and encouraged Foreign Societies 
and Individuals, by liberal grants of money, to print the 
Bible in the form which the general usage or Ecclesiastical 
authority of their respective countries prescribed. The- 
received, or authorized form, in the Foreign Christian 
churches, includes the Apocrypha : which has, therefore, 
been printed with the rest of the Bibles by the Society's 
aid. But in the many New Versions which it has procured 
for Heathen Countries, and in the million and a half of 
Bibles which it has distributed in Great Britain, there has 
never been a thought of inserting the Apocrypha. Still 


further, the first Foreign Bibles which it printed in this 
country did not contain the Apocrypha. But it was found, 
that such Bibles could not be circulated to any extent 
abroad. The Society has, therefore, since printed Bibles 
containing the Apocrypha for Foreign circulation. 

"This practice has lately been objected to, and an 
attempt has been made to alter the course of proceeding, 
by binding the Committee under formal resolutions not to 
print the Apocrypha in any case: with respect also to 
Roman Catholic authorized Versions, where the Apocryphal 
books are arranged among the inspired, according to the 
ancient form of the Vulgate, it has been proposed wholly to 
abstain from countenancing such Versions. Against this 
attempted innovation in the Society's proceedings, the 
following Protest was presented from several' Members 
of the University of Cambridge. 

"At a Meeting of several Members of the University 
of Cambridge, subscribers to the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, or its Auxiliaries, held at the Lodge of Corpus 
Christi College, 11th February, 1825; the Master of 
C. C. C. in the Chair; it was agreed to admit the following 
representation to the Committee of that Society. 

' " "We, the undersigned Members of the University of 
Cambridge, having taken into consideration a resolution 
which was passed on the 20th of December last, ' that no 
pecuniary grants should be made by the Committee of this 
Society, for the purpose of aiding the printing, or pub- 
lishing any edition of the Bible, in ■ which the Apocrypha 
shall be mixed and interspersed with the canonical books 
of the Holy Scriptures,' beg leave, on so grave and im- 
portant a subject, to present our unanimous request that 
the propriety of the resolution may be re- considered. 

" We wish it to be considered, whether that resolution 
is not in fact a violation of one of the grand and funda- 
mental principles of the Society! namely, that of uniting, 
in the common work, the efforts of all Christian communi- 
ties; and whether it will not cut off some of the largest 
and most promising branches of the Society's labour, by 
giving up, in some quarters, the only way in which any part 
of the word of God can be circulated, and, in other quar- 
ters, the only way in which the Old Testament can be cir- 
culated with the New. 

" "We conceive that the very terms in which the designs 
and character of the Society are declared, in the body of 


rules and regulations, do fully admit of the circulation of 
the Scriptures, as they are received by different Established 
Churches throughout the world ; and we wish it to be con- 
sidered, whether the whole spirit of the Society, as breathing 
love to mankind, and a desire for the salvation of the 
world, be not contravened by the resolution in question. 

" We have no desire whatever that the Apocrypha should 
be circulated where the Canonical Scripture will be re- 
ceived without it ; but we earnestly wish that the circulation 
of these may not be impeded, by any determination which 
will excite direct opposition from the very churches that 
most need to be supplied with them. 

J. Lamb, Master of Corpus Christi Coll. 

Samuel Lee, M. A. Professor of Arabic. 

Frederick Thackeray, M.D. Eman. Coll. 

W, Parish, Magd. Coll. B. D. Jack- 
sorjian Professor. 

A. Sedgwick, Trin. Coll. Woodwardian 

C. Simeon, King's Coll. 

G. King, M. A. Prebendary of Ely. 

James Scholefield, A. M. Fellow of 
Trin. Coll., and Secretary to the Cam- 
bridge Auxiliary. 

Legh Richmond, A.M.* Trin. Coll. 
(Torvey, Beds.) 

W. Clark, A. M. Corp. Ch. Coll. 

W. Mandell, Fellow of Queen's Coll. 

H. V.EItiot,A.M.FellowofTrra.CoIi. 

George Milner, A. M. St. John's Coll. 

J. Lodge, A. M. Magd. Coll. Librarian 
of the University. 

" The signatures were restricted to Masters of Arts, and 
persons of superior degrees. Two or three of the above 
individuals, though not resident Members of the University, 
happened to be in Cambridge at the time, and availed 
themselves of the opportunity of expressing their concur- 
rence in the above representation." 

The Committee of the Parent Society now found them- 
selves in the unpleasant situation of having offended both 
their Edinburgh and Cambridge friends. They at length 
resolved after repeated and long discussions, to extricate 
themselves from the labyrinth in which they were involved, 
by passing, March 23, 1825, the following Resolution, viz. 
" That all the resolutions of the Committee relative to 
the Apocrypha be rescinded." 

The effect of this resolution it will be perceived, was to 
throw open the whole question respecting the Apocrypha, 

* It is understood that this gentleman has since withdrawn his signature. 

Baptist, W. Noel, A. M. Trin. Coll. 
T. P. Piatt, M.A. Fellow of Trin. 

G. E. Corrie, M.A. Fellow and Tutor 

of Catharine Hall. 
W. Twigg. M.A. Trin. Coll. 
Edw. Edwards, M.A. Corp. Ch. Coll. 

(Lynn, Norf.) 
Samuel Hawkes, M. A. Fellow of Trin. 

Henry Venn, M. A. Fellow of Queen's 

H. J. Sperling, M. A. Trin. Coll. 
W. H. Markby, B. D. Corp. Ch. Coll. 
Samuel Carr, M.A. Fellow of Qoeen's 

W. Cecil, M. A. Fellow of Magd. Coll. 
H. Godfrey, D. D, Presidentof Queen's 



and to leave the matter of granting supplies to foreign 
Protestant Societies and to Dr. Lennder Van Ess, entirely 
to the future decision of the Committee. It is not wonderful, 
therefore, that those persons who were opposed to the cir- 
culation of the apocryphal hooks, either as appended to, or 
as intermingled with the inspired canon, were still exceed- 
ingly dissatisfied. The Edinburgh Committee transmitted 
to London the following resolution, passed on April 4, 1825, 

" Resolved — That a letter be transmitted to the Society 
in London acknowledging the receipt of the communications 
from that Society, bearing date 23rd nit. and stating in reply, 
that this Society sees with anxiety the latter clause of that 
letter, intimating that the future proceedings of the Society 
are as yet uncertain ; that this Society simply refers to its 
resolutions of the 17th January last for its unaltered opinion 
on the subject : and that it earnestly presses upon the Com- 
mittee the absolute necessity of considering and determining 
this question within the shortest possible period, and trans- 
mitting a direct answer, whether the Committee of the 
Parent Society consider tbemselves warranted by the original 
and fundamental rule, to aid in any way whatever the cir- 
culation of the Apocrypha. 

" That, till a satisfactory answer be received from London 
on this point, all remittances to the Parent Society be 
suspended." ■ • 

On the same day that this decided resolution was passed 
in Edinburgh, a "remonstrance signed by twenty-seven 
persons, (including four regular members of the Parent 
Committee, who resided in London,) was laid before that 
Parent Committee. These were persons residing in London 
who, though they did not go to the length of the Edinburgh 
Committee, were opposed to the circulation of inter- 
spersed Apocryphas." The Parent Committee referred 
this and the -Resolution from Edinburgh, to a special Com- 
mittee, that the whole subject relating to the Apocrypha, 
should be again discussed : the following is the measure 
which was proposed by the special, and adopted bv the 
general Committee : and which jvas submitted to the Com- 
mittee at Edinburgh, as the articles of peace and reconcili- 
ation : — 


April 9, 1825. 
" At a Meeting of the Special Committee, appointed to 
consider the subject of the Apocrypha, — 

" After a very full discussion, the following Resolution 
was agreed to, viz. 

" That it be recommended to the General Committee 
not to print or circulate the Apocryphal Books ; and, at the 
same time, to use their best endeavours to aid the circulation 
of the Inspired Volume in all foreign countries, by grants 
of the Canonical Books, in whole or in part, without inter- 
fering with tbe future distribution of the same, whether 
with or without the Apocryphal Books 

" April 22, 1825. 

" At a Meeting of the General Committee, specially 
summoned to receive the Report of the special Committee, 

" The above Resolution was considered and adopted." 

This, perhaps, was the only expedient that could have 
been adopted at all likely to meet the views of all the parties 
concerned. But is it not surprising that the impracticability 
of carrying it into effect did not occur to the miuds of the 
Committee ? As for instance, — How could the Book of 
Esther, or of Daniel as printed in this country, be accepta- 
ble to the Roman Catholics? Besides, the measure had 
the appearance, by sending copies of the canonical books 
unbound, of tacitly encouraging the Roman Catholics to 
intersperse the apocryphal books : and by thus supplying 
them with the canonical books in sheets, they were at liberty 
to apply all their own money solely to printing the apocryphal 
books, thus laying them under the necessity of destroying 
the copies of the books of Esther and Daniel, sent them, 
from its being impossible to put them in circulation. It 
was not to be expected therefore, that this step of the Pa- 
rent Society, could remove the difficulties of those who 
objected to the Popish Edition as a FALSE CANON OF 
Scripture, because the apocryphal writings interspersed 
and undistinguished would still make an integral part of it, 
and be enjoined to be received as " sacred and canonical" 
as much so as the Holy Scriptures themselves. 

Accordingly we find, that to the Edinburgh Committee 
especially, it was considered " to be of an highly unsatisfac- 
tory character." They say, " supposing the expression of 
the Committee to be limited to books in sheets, even then, 
if the different books of Scripture be printed so as to be 
capable of separation, it is obvious that between them may 
be inserted the apocryphal books. And if it is the scope 
of the resolntion to authorize grants of money, for the 
D 2 


printing the canonical books, then undoubtedly it is easy for 
Foreign Societies to add their own mite. to the fund given, 
and with both will be enabled to bring out a spurious book 
under the name of tbe Bible. In this view, the recent reso- 
lution of the British and Foreign Bible Society, admitting as 
it does, of the continuation of that most pernicious practice, 
the interspersion of the Apocryphal books, is worse in 
principle than the earlier ones they rescinded." 

The Edinburgh Committee contend, that the Bible Society 
cannot be restored to the purity of its original object, and 
professed design, unless it put an effectual check upon the 
Foreign Societies, so as to prevent their circulating, along 
with copies of the books of the Parent Society, either 
directly or indirectly, those apocryphal books which by all 
Protestants are declared not to be canonical. 

The answer sent to the Committee of the Parent Society 
from Edinburgh, is contained in the three following resolu- 
tions, adopted by their Committee on the 16th May, 1825, 
" after mature deliberation : — 

" I. That they see no cause to depart from the resolutions 
adopted by them at their meeting 17th January, 1825,- with 
reference to the circulation of the Apocrypha ; and that 
therefore their remittances to the British and Foreign Bible 
Society be discontinued. 

" 2. That while they feel themselves under the necessity 
of taking this step, it will afford them unfeigned satisfaction 
to have it in their power to renew that friendly intercourse 
which they have hitherto maintained with the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, by the removal of those circum- 
stances which have led to its interruption. 

" 3. That the resolutions of 17th January, 1825, be im- 
mediately printed and circulated among the various Bible 
Associations of the kingdom, with a statement of the result 
of the subsequent communications on the subject, for the 
purpose of explaining the grounds of the proceedings of 
this Committee with regard to this important question* 
(Signed) T. DAVIDSON, D.D. Preses. 

Edinburgh, May 18, 1825. 

That the view taken of this subject by the Edinburgh 
Committee is likely to influence very many of its subscribers, 
may be inferred from the fact that in consequence of 
their published " Statement," having been sent to all the 
Auxiliary Bible Societies, the following Societies soon 


after addressed the Parent Society in the language of firm 
remonstrance : — namely, the Newcastle, Hereford, Ayr- 
shire, Surrey, North Shields, Haddington and North 
Somersetshire. On the other hand the sentiments avowed 
and advocated by the Clergymen at Cambridge in their 
"Protest*" have the concurrence of a very large proportion 
of individuals both in the General and special Committee, 
that there he no restraint put upon Foreign Societies, nor 
their own Agents on the Continent, as to the circulation of 
the Bible containing the Apocrypha, even in the most ob- 
jectionable form of the intermingled order of the books. 
And upon these opinions they have also been encouraged 
to act, by addresses from the Nottingham, Dorking and 
West Essex Auxiliary Societies. 

The dilemma into which the Committee of the Parent 
Society were brought by these opposing parties led them 
on the 2nd of August last, to refer the whole subject of the 
Apocrypha to a special Committee,* for the purpose of re- 
ceiving " a careful and deliberate consideration." In a 
circular letter dated the Gth of August, and signed by the 
three Secretaries, they express their conviction and expec- 
tation of a peaceful result ; — " We trust," they say, " the 
result will prove satisfactory to the members of the Society." 

Never had any men a more difficult task to perform, 
than those who compose this special Committee, should 
they unhappily proceed upon the principle of attempting 
by any compromising measure, to satisfy all the contending 
parties on the subject ; it might be added, never had any 
men a more fearful responsibility devolved upon them : it 
rests with them, at least so far as the influence of the Bible 
Society extends, to decide the question, Whether the 
council of Trent were justifiable in setting forth the Apo- 
cryphal books, as inspired writings of equal authority in 
matters of faith and practice with the word of God? or, 
whether the Protestant principle does not demand the un- 
equivocal rejection, in matters relating to salvation, of all 
human traditions, and all merely ecclesiastical writings ? 

* This special Committee consists of Lords Teignmouth, Bexley and 
Calthorpe; the Bishop of Litchlield and Coventry; the Uev. Messrs. 
Cunningham, Dealtry, Orme, Pratt and Simeon, and Dr. Thorpe ; Sir R. 
H. Inglis, and Messrs. Wilberforce, Batter worth, Allen, Macaulay, 
Phillips, Steven and Trueman, together with the Secretaries. 




The following explanation is given of the term Apo- 
cryphal, in Lemon's English Etymology. " Attok^v^o^, 
Atto, abs, et Kpvirlto, condo, to hide. It signifies, those 
books in the church, whose origin and authors were unknown 
to the fathers; and consequently read only in private, not 
publicly. Nugent." 

It might have been concluded, had it not been asserted 
to the contrary, that the learned Jerome from his having 
translated some of the apocryphal books and interspersed 
them in the Vulgate, with the inspired books, had himself 
believed them to be canonical. So far from this, we find 
him saying, that it was the ignorance of the age and the pre- 
judices which prevailed that induced him to take that step. 
He expressly says, " that the book of Bel and the Dragon 
is a fable ,• that these books do not belong to those whose 
names they bear; and that they contain several forgeries." 
St. Austin, also says, " that though we find in the apo- 
cryphal writings some truths, yet they have no authority, by 
reason of the many falsities contained in them."* 

It is not pretended that these books were ever received 
by the. Jews, or so much as known to them. None of the 
writers .of the New Testament cite or mention them ; 
neither Philo nor Josephus speaks of them. The Christian 
church was for some ages an utter stranger to these books : 
Origin, Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem, and all 
the orthodox writers who have given catalogues of the ca- 
nonical books of Scripture, unanimously concur in rejecting 
them out of the Canon. 

We shall give a list of the books accounted Apocryphal 
by Protestants in a future chapter ; we have already shewn 
how they are arranged by the decree of the council of 
Trent. There are also some books which the Roman 
Catholics themselves esteem Apocryphal ; — which are not 

• Lewis's Antiquities, gt, J88, 


in their Versions; — these are the book of Enoch,* the 
third and fourth books of Esdras, the third and fourth 
books of Maccabees.f the Prayer of Manassah, the testa- 
ment of the twelve Patriarchs, the psalter of Solomon, the 
addition at the end of Job, and the 150 Psalms.J 

The learned Prideaux, speaking of the second book of 
Maccabees ;. says, "it contains such fabulous and absurd 
stuff, as could never have been written by the great council 
of the Jews, assembled at Jerusalem for the whole nation, 
as this pretends to be."§ He gives the following opinions 
of these books of the Apocrypha. 

Tobit, " Jerome made this translation before he himself 
understood Chaldee, by the help of a learned Jew, from 
whose mouth he tells us he wrote in Latin what the other 
rendered into Hebrew from the original, and in this way 
■finished the whole work in one day's time. This Latin 
edition it is, that the church of Rome hath canonized."^] 

"The second apocryphal book of Esdras, a book too 
absurd for the Romanists themselves to receive into their 

Judith, " Grotius calls it a parabolical fiction. The 
Romanists will have it all to be true, for they have received 
it into the Canon of divine writ."ff 

Maccabees, " written by Jasor in five books, the second 
book which we have is an abridgement. ":£{; 

The judicious Dr. Doddridge in his Lectures, says, "The 
books of the Apocrypha are not to be received as written 
by a plenary superintend ant inspiration:" — to prove this he 
offers the following demonstration. 

1. "Josephus only maintains twenty-two books of the Old 
Testament as inspired, in which these cannot be included : 
and he expressly says, that those which were written after 
the time of Artaxerxes, (i. e. probably Artaxerxes Lon- 
gimanus,) from whom Ezra and Nehemiak had their com- 

* This long lost curious book was printed in 1821, translated by 
R. Lawrence, L. L. D. 

+ These two additional books, the writer has been informed by un- 
questionable authority, are inserted with the first and second books of the 
Maccabees, in the celebrated Alexandrian manuscript, supposed to be of 
the fourth century ; the oldest known copy of the Scripture. 

t Home's Introduction, &c. vol. ii. p. 322. 

§ Prideaux's Connection, vol. ii. part ii, p. 168. 

If Prid, Con. vol. i.part i. book i.p. 53. ** Prid, Con. vol. iii. part. i. 
ook v. p. 321. tt Vol. i. p. 39. ft Vol. i. p. 544. 


mission, were not looked upon by the Jewish church as of 
equal authority. 

" 2. They never appear to have been quoted in the New 
Testament, as most of the books of the Old are, though 
some passages of them might have been much to the pur- 
pose of the sacred writers. 

"3. The author of the first book of Maccabees, which 
is one of the most valuable of the whole collection, 
intimates that there had not for a considerable time been 
any Prophet in Israel divinely inspired, 1 Mac. ix. 46. 
x. 27. and the author of the second book seems expressly 
to own, that he had no supernatural assistance, 2 Mac. xv. 
38, 39. ii. 19-28. 

"4. There are some passages in these books which seem 
in themselves absurd and incredible, v. g. the angel's lying 
to Tobit, and afterwards driving away the devil by a fumi- 
gation, Tobit, v. 12. compared with Tuhit xii. 15. Tobit 
vi. pass. The story of fire being turned into water, and 
vice versa, 2 Mac. i. 19 — 22. The march of the tabernacle 
and ark after Jeremiah, ibid. ii. 4 — 8. to which most writers 
add what they think the inconsistent and contradictory 
account of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is said 
to have died of grief, 1 Mac. vi. 8, 16. and to have died 
miserably in the mountains consumed with worms, 2 Mac. 
ix. 5 — 12. 28. 2 Mac. i. 16. is also quoted, as relating 
that his brains were beaten out, but that Antiochus must 
probably have been another person. 

" 5. There are other passages which are inconsistent 
with some parts of the Old Testament, v. g. Judith (ix.2.) 
justifying the murder of the Shcchemites, condemned 
Gen. xlix. 7. The author of the Wisdom of Solomon, 
speaking in the person of that prince, represents Israel as 
tinder oppression, which it was not in Solomon's days, 
Wisd. ix. 7, 8. xv. 14. compared with 1 Kings, x. 27. (yet 
some have urged 1 Kings „\i. 14 — 25, as an answer to this 
objection.) Baruch is here said to have been carried into 
Babylon, at the same time when Jeremiah tells us he was 
curried into Egypt, Bar. i. 2. Jer. xliii. 6. to which we 
may add the false account of the facts related, Lev. x. 
10 — 20. in the reference to it, 1 Mac. ii. 11. Compare 
also Esth. xii. 5. with vi. 3 — 6, to which may be added the 
applause of self-murder, 2 Mac. xiv. 41, &t\ 

" (>. There are some passages relating to the history 
of foreign nations, so inconsistent with what all other 


historians say, as not to be admitted without much greater 
evidence than belongs to the books, 1 Mac. i. 6, 7. viii. 16. 
" From comparing all these steps on the one hand, and 
considering on the other that there is no positive evi- 
dence for their inspiration, it follows, that these books are 
not to be admitted as written by a plenary superintendant 

" The insisting uponreading some portion of these books, 
instead of lessons from Scripture, in the daily offices of the 
Church [of England] was an unreasonable and cruel impo- 
sition in those who fixed the terms of conformity in England 
in the year 1601.* 


** We allow that the Christian fathers cited these books 
with great regard : nevertheless most of them place the 
apocryphal books in a class inferior to those which they 
call canonical; and the first council which is said to have 
received them was the provincial council of Carthage, A.D. 
397, who evidently came too late to be more competent 
judges of this question than the Jeius themselves were. 
Nevertheless, we acknowledge these books to have been of 
considerable antiquity : and as some of them are very valu- 
able, on account of the wise and pious sentiments they 
contain, so the historical facts, and references to ancient 
nations and customs in others of them, make them well 
worthy an attentive perusal. 


** It is exceedingly probable, that the chief reason for 
■which the authority of these books is maintained by the 
Church of Rome is, that some passages in them countenance 
their superstitions, particularly the intercession of angels, 
Tobit xii. 15. and praying for the dead, 2 Mac. xii. 40-45. 

* On the 22nd of November, the day consecrated to St, Cecilia, the 
first lesson in the morning service is the 4th chapter of Bartich. St. 
Cecilia was the patroness of mnsic, and J«i9 been honoured as a martyr 
ever since the 5th century ! After being in a hot bath enclosed for twenty- 
four hours, and remaining alive, she was beheaded ! 

On the 23d of November the day is consecrated to St. Clement, bishop 
of Koine, appointed by Paul or Peter! In honour of this eminent saint, 
the writer of an apocryphal Epistle, the church has appointed as her first 
lesson the edifying book of " ljel and the Dragon." This book was first 
introduced as alcssim at the Satoij Conference in 166'.. 


that he found in it. Lucas Brugensis another learned 
Papist, acknowledges its defects. And for that editioa ap- 
pointed by the council, and confirmed by Pope Sixtus V. 
to be henceforth used as their only Bible, it was not so per- 
fect as not to need correction, and therefore his successor, 
Clement VIII. published it over again, and a charge that 
none else be received : and this is their new Bible, the only 
authentic copy of the Bible. Aud who can question its 
excellency, since all the corruptions of former editions were 
purged out by an infallible pope 1 Yet afterwards comes one 
more infallible it seems, and purges it again. Surely now 
the work is perfect: it is in vain to look for any errors here! 
And yet, I presume, if we compare it with the originals, it 
will not appear so very perfect, as to want no further cor- 

" But supposing it to be the most excellent translation ; 
I ask, where is the modesty or sense of it, to set up a trans- 
lation instead of the original; as if, the painter should 
correct a man's face by the picture which he has drawn of 
him 1 It is a translation and therefore not authentic scrip- 
ture, any further than it agrees with the original; and yet 
they make it scripture, the only authentic copy of scripture, 
which we must use in preaching, disputing, &c. and will 
not allow us to appeal to the original text in any case : — 
strange arrogance, who can forbear complaining here?"* 

Dr. Gray, Prebendary of Durham, in his preface to the 
apocryphal books, says, "They have no title to be consider- 
ed inspired writings, and though in respect of their antiquity 
and valuable contents they are annexed to the canonical 
books, it is a separate division, and by no means upon an 
idea that they are of equal authority in point of doctrine 
with them, or that they are to be read as oracles of faith 
to sanctify opinion, or to decide religious controversies. — 
However valuable they may be considered for their general 
excellence, it is necessary to keep inviolate and free 
from all intermixture, that consecrated canon in 
which the Holy Oracles were preserved by the Jews ; 
which was stamped as infallible by the testimony of Christ 
and his Apostles ; and which in the first and purest ages of 
the Church, was reverenced, (together with the inspired 
books of the New Testament,) as the only source of revealed 

* A View of the whole system of Popery, by the Rev. and learned 
Benjamin Bennett, p. 40—44. London edition of 1781. 
+ Key to the Old Testament dud Apocrypha, p. 515, 61(i. 


The learned defender of the Church Establishment, 
Hooker, says, "The most ancient and best councils forbid 
any thing to be read in churches, saving canonical scripture 
only. — We used in our church certain books besides the 
Scriptures, yet as the Scripture we read them not. 

"Inasmuch as the due estimation of heavenly truth, dc- 
pendeth wholly upon the known and approved authority of 
those FAMOUS oracles of god, it greatly behoveth the 
church to have always most especial care, lest through con- 
fused mixture at any time, human usurp the room and title 
of divine writings; we hold not the Apocrypha for sacred, 
(as we do the Holy Scriptures,) but for human compositions. — 
The books of Scripture were numbered, those called apoc- 
ryphal being left out of the Canon, which though they were 
read in the church, it was only for the edification of the peo- 
ple, and not for the truth of the doctrine."* 

Bishop Prideaux thus speaks ; 

"Part of the book of Daniel is originally written in the 
Chaldean language, that is, from the 4th verse of the 2nd 
chapter, to the end of the 7th chapter ; for then the holy 
prophet writing of Babylonish affairs, he wrote of them in 
the Chaldee or -Babylonish language; all the rest is in 
Hebrew ; the Greek translation of this hook, used by the 
Greek churches through all the eastern countries, was that 
which was translated by Theodotion. In the vulgar Latin 
edition of the Bible, there is added in the 3rd chapter, after 
the 23rd verse, between that and the 24th verse, The Song 
of the Three Children; and at the end of the book, The 
History of Susanna, and of Bel and the Dragon ,■ and the 
former is made the 13th, and the other the 14th chapter of 
the book in that edition. But these additions were never 
received into the canon of holy writ by the Jewish church ; 
neither are they extant either in the Hebrew or Chaldee 
language : nor is there any evidence that they ever were 
so. That there are Hebraisms in them can prove no more, 
than that they were written by a Hebrew in the Greek 
tongue, who transformed the idioms of his own tongue into 
that which he wrote in, as is usual in this case ; and that 
they were thus originally written in the Greek tongue by 
some hellenistical Jew, without having any higher fountain 
from whence they were derived, appears from this, that in 

* Hooker's Keel. Pol. Part I. book i. p. 197. 


the history of Susanna, Daniel in his replies to the Elders, 
alludes to the Greek name of the trees under "which they 
said, the adultery they charged Susanna with, was commit- 
ted, which allusions cannot hold good in any other language. 
However the church of Rome allows them to be of the 
same authority with the rest of the book of Daniel, and by 
their decree of Trent, have given them an equal place with 
it among the canonical Scriptures ; but the ancients never 
did so, Africanus, Eusebius, and Appolinarius have rejected 
those pieces, not only as being uncanonical, but also fabu- 
lous; and Jerome gives the history of Bel and the Dragon 
no better title than that of the fables of Bel and the Dragon. 
And others who have been content to admit them for 
instruction of manners, have yet rejected them from being 
parts of the canonical scriptures ; though the Protestant 
churches following herein, do give them a place in their 
Bibles among the apocryphal writings, but allow them not 
to be canonical."* 

We again introduce the remarks of Bishop Cosins, in his 
work on the Canon, &c. "The first edition of the Sep- 
tuagint translation had none of the controverted books in it. 
In which regard, the authors of the ordinary Glosse, when 
they came to the several books of Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, 
Ecclesiasticus, and the Maccabees, they prefix this title to 
them all, " Here beginneth the book of Tobit, which is 
not in the Canon," and so of the rest ; which is to write 
this distinction that we now maintain, with a Pen of Iron, 
that it might never be forgotten." 

Speaking of the testimonies of the ecclesiastical writers 
in the 16th century, he says, " JCimines the cardinal, 
together with other learned men, that set out the Com- 
plutensian Bible, expressly put the Apocryphal Books out 
of the Canon of Scripture ; A. D. 1541, and 1545. 

w Lastly, the several translations of the Bible, set forth at 
their times with special prefaces before them ; made as well 
by Santes Pagninus the Dominican, at Lyons, by Antonins 
Braciolus in Italy, and by the author of Birkman's edition 
at Antwerp, as by Robert Stephen in the edition of Vatel- 
lus at Paris ; every one declaring the distinction that was 
then commonly known and received, between the Canon 
and the Apocryphal Books of Scripture: all these being- 
joined with the former authors, whom we have produced in 

* I'rideaiix's Connec. Part 1. Hook iii. p. 170. 


all ages, are most evident and effectual witnesses, that 
neither we of the Church of England, nor the Protestants 
abroad, have herein transgressed those bounds, which the 
prophets and apostles, and generally all our chief men in 
this way had set out and prescribed for us."* 

The celebrated Dr. Lightfoot, master of Catherine Hall, 
Cambridge, and aftorwards one of the assembly of divines, 
says of the apocryphal books, as to the place which they 
occupy in Popish versions, and in our English Bibles, 
" There is not a space between the two plots of holy ground, 
the Old and New Testaments, for they touch each other ; 
what do the Papists then, when they put and chop in the 
Apocrypha for Canonical Scripture, between Malachi; and 
Matthew, Law and Gospel ! what do they but make a wall 
between the seraphims that they cannot hear each other cry? 
What do they but make a stop between the cherubims that 
they cannot touch each others wings ? What do they but 
make a ditch between these grounds, that they cannot reach 
each others coasts? What do they but remove the land- 
mark of the scripture, and so are guilty of, Cursed he he 
that removeth his neighbour's land-mark? (Dent. xxii. 17.) 
And what do they but divorce the marriage of the Testa- 
ments, and so are guilty of the breach of, " That which 
God hath joined together, let no man put asunder." f 

The following is from an ably written book, by a mem- 
ber of the Church of England, entitled, "An Essay con- 
cerning the books commonly called Apocrypha, and the public 
reading of them in the church ; by a Lover of Truth." London 
J 740. In the preface, the Author says, "lam very well as- 
sured that the binding up the Apocryphal with the Sacred 
books in the same volume, (a practice which I heartily wish 
were forbidden by authority,) and the public reading several 
parts of the former in the church, is what has been a great 
grievance, &c." 

"There are no small number among the former, (the 
Clergy,) who heartily wish that the church were well rid of 
the apocryphal books, at least those of Tobit, Judith, Su- 
sanna, Bel and the Dragon, which though they have been 
received into the Canon by the council, or rather conven- 
ticle of Trent, have been plainly proved by some of the 
most eminent Protestant writers, not only foreigners, such as 

* Cosins on the Canon, cliap. vii. p. 96, 167, 102. 
t Lighlfuufs Works, vol. i. p. 1004. iol. Edit. London, 1681. 


Charrier, Molineux, Spanhemius, &c. but several of our 
own country, as Rainolds, Whitaker, Ames, &c. in their 
contests with cardinal Bellarmine, the great Goliath of the 
Papists, to be stuffed with many fictitious stories, and foolish 
fables, as false as any of the ridiculous and monstrous tales 
of the Talmud, or Koran, or as any of the Popish Legends ; 
yea, not only false, but profane in a high degree." 

" And give me leave to add, that I am very much inclined 
to think, that some of these Apocryphal tales, as particu- 
larly those of Tobit, Judith, and Bel and the Dragon, are 
among those profane and old wives fables, which the holy 
apostle, St. Paul, warns Timothy and Titus against; 1 Tim. 
i. 4. and iv. 7. Tit i. 14." 

" The church of Rome rejects the books of the pretended 
Esdras, as spurious and uncanonical, and of no divine 

It would have been easy to multiply quotations, some of 
them too, designed by their respective authors, to ridicule 
some of the tales recorded in the books in question : but the 
subject demands the most serious discussion, and it is 
hoped none who are desirous that " the word of God may 
have free course and be glorified," will in any way lend 
their influence to hang upon it these dead weights of unin- 
spired writings, which must necessarily impede its course, 
and tend in a great variety of ways to "hinder the gospel 
of Christ." 

* An Essay, &c. Preface, p. vii. viii. p. 9. 



history op the english bible and apocrypha, in the respec- 
tive reigns ot henry viii. edward vi. and queen elizabeth. — 
proposed epitaphs to tyndal and rogers. — tyndal's trans- 
lation from the hebrew and greek ; new testament, 1526 ; 
pentateuch, 1630; whole bible, w1thoutthe apocrypha, 1532. 
— coverdale's translation prom the latin and dutch, in- 
cluding the apocrypha, 1535. — matthews's,'1537. chanmeit's, 

1639. — taverner's, 1539. — great bible or large volume, 
three distinct copies (one of them with an interspersed 
apocrypha) 1540, 1541.— geneva translation, 1569. — Parker's, 
or the bishop's bible, 1568. — king Edward's articles of 
religion, 1552, exclude — queen Elizabeth's, of 1562, in- 
clude the apocryphal writings. 

henry viii. from 1509 to 1540. 

The reformation from popery ill England is attributable, 
mainly, to the translating and printing the English Bible. 
The names of those excellent men who were the instru- 
ments of accomplishing this great work, should be had by 
Englishmen in everlasting remembrance ; it is not too much 
to say, " The Lord working with them, and confirming his 
word with signs following." 

The object proposed in this chapter is, to give the his- 
tory of the English Bible in the reign of Henry VIII. and 
in those of Edward VI. and of Queen Elizabeth, in so far 
as it is connected with the apocryphal books. 

The translation of the Scriptures into English was effected 
between the years 1520 and 1540, by the labours of William 
Tyndal, assisted by Myles Coverdale, John Rogers, and 
others, who on account of persecution had been obliged to 
reside on the Continent.* It is affecting to add that the first 
of these, after having long escaped the cruel designs of his 
enemies, was at length apprehended, and after six months 
imprisonment strangled and burnt for an heretic, at Filford, 
near Antwerp, in the year 1536. To William Tyndal 
the distinguished HONOUR belongs, of having translated 

* Strype in his life of Cranmer Bays, ' the translator was William 
Tyndal, a learned martyr, with the help of Mylea Coverdale : the correc- 
tor was John Rogers.' Life of Cranmer, p. 82. 


and printed the Bible in the English language. To him 
more than to any other man, England owes her deliverance 
from the iron yoke of popery. He deserves a much better 
epitaph than the following lines: 

Not worthy to contain so great a mind, 
Tyndal for Christ, his country leaves behind; 
Maligned through life, — victim of popish lies ; 
While praying for his enemy, he dies : 
Blest man ! thy British blood was nobly spent, 
The English Bible is thy monoment. 

His last words are said to have been, '* Lord open the 
king of England's eyes!" It is evident that he considered 
himself as having fallen a victim to the anger of Henry 
VIII. who was doubtless excited to this persecuting spirit 
against the most noble man in all his dominions, by the 
malicious representations of his popish enemies. H is wor- 
thy of observation, how much he resembled in his spirit 
towards his enemies, the proto-martyr Stephen ; how nearly 
he approached to the submission and benevolent spirit of 
the Lord Jesus; what system but that of pure Christianity 
teacheth men even in death, to love those who hate them, 
and to pray for them who despitefully use and persecute 

To John Rogers, Tyndal's companion in tribulation 
and labour, the honour of translating the Apocrypha belongs ! 
He too fell a victim to popish malice, in the reign of Mary 
the popish queen of England, being burnt in Smithfield, the 
4th of February, 1554. Until a more suitable epitaph be 
written for him, the following is submitted for that purpose : 

Drunk with the blood of saints, yet still athirst 
For martyrs* blood j John Rogers suffered first 
In cruel Mary's reign. — Those vile refuse 
Of hidden writings, brought lopublic use 
We owe to him ; and while we mourn his fate, 
Blame him for mixing darnel with the wheat. 

For the purpose of bringing this whole subject before the 
reader, it will be necessary to give some account of arch- 
bishop Cranmer, through whose influence with the king and 
the privy council, the English Bible was first published for 
sale, and ultimately appointed to be read in the parish 

This eminent man was made archbishop of Canterbury, 
March 30th, 1533, and the next year, in the convocation of 
the clergy of the province of Canterbury, he proposed that 
there might be a translation of the Bible into English : 


accordingly on December i9th, 1534, it was agreed by 
both bouses of convocation, "that the most reverend the 
archbishop, should make instance in their names to the 
king, that his majesty would vouchsafe, for the increase of 
the faith of his subjects, to decree and command, that all 
his subjects, in whose possession any books of suspected 
doctrine were, especially in the vulgar language, imprinted 
beyond, or on this side the sea, should be warned within 
three mouths to bring them in -before persons to be ap- 
pointed by the king, under a certain pain to be limited by 
him; and that moreover his majesty would vouchsafe to 
decree that the scriptures should be translated 
into THE vulgar tongue, by some honest and learned 
men, to be nominated by the king, and to be delivered 
unto the people according to their learning." Whether 
this address was ever presented to the king does not appear, 
but the archbishop acted upon the last part of it, and pro- 
ceeded in the work of procuring a new edition of the Bible; 
" For this purpose," says Strype, " he took an old English 
translation, (Tyndal's) which he divided into nine or ten 
parts, and sent them to the best learned bishops and others, 
to make a perfect correction of them, and when they had 
done, to return them to him at Lambeth, by such a time ; 
one of these parts, viz. The Acts of the Apostles, was, it 
seems, sent to Stokesley, bishop of London : when the day 
fixed was come, all of them sent their portions to the arch- 
bishop, as he had required, except Stokesley, who when his 
grace wrote to him, returned a very surly answer, and abso- 
lutely refused to meddle with it."* 

In another part of his work, Strype says, " ( I will here 
relate more at large, what countenance and assistance he 
(the archbishop) gave to this pious work all along, and to 
those who were connected and employed in doing it. 

"This Bible (Cranmer's) as Fox speaks, had been printed 
in 1532, and reprinted again, about three or four years 
after. The undertakers and printers were, Grafton 
and Whitchurch, who printed itf at Hamburgh ; the cor- 
rector was John Rogers, a learned divine, after a canon of 
St. Paul's in king Edward's time, and the first martyr in the 
next reign ; the translator was William Tyndal, another 
learned martyr, with the help of Myles Coverdale, after 

* Strype's Life of Cranmer, p. 24, 34. 

+ It should have been said, employed persons to print it. 

F. 2 


bishop of Exeter: but before all this second edition, 
was printed^ Tyndal was taken and put to death for his 
religion in Flanders, in the year 1536 ; and his name thus 
growing into ignominy, as one burnt for an heretick, they 
thought it might prejudice the book, if he should be named the 
translator thereof : and so they used a feigned name, calling- 
it Thomas Matthews' Bible ; though Tyndal before his death 
had finished all but the Apocrypha, which was finished by 
Rogers above said, who added also some marginal notes. 
" Some yearsafter came forth the Bible aforesaid,* wherein 
Cranmer bad the great hand, which, as I suppose, was 
nothing but the former corrected, the Prologues and Table 
being left out." 

[Here is introduced by Strype, the History of Tyndal's New 

" Now, the Holy Bible was divulged and exposed for 
common sale; and appointed to be had in every parish 
church, and there, that the sacred book might be used with 
the more benefit, both of the clergy and lay-people, for that 
reason a declaration was issued out, to be read openly by all 
curates, upon the publishing of this Bible. This Bible 
was of such quick sale, that two years after (1539) it was 
printed again/'-f- 

Slrype further states, 

"In 1537, he, the archbishop, was at Ford, and it was in 
the month of August, when something fell out that gave the 
good archbishop as much joy as ever happened to him, in 
all the time of his prelacy; it was the printing of the Holy 
Bible in the English tongue, in the Great Volume, which 
was now finished by the great pains and charges of Richard 
Grafton the printer. Osiauder who knew the archbishop 
well, when he was the king's ambassador in Germany, saith 
of him, that he was Sacrarum Literarum Studiosisum.X 

* This was printed in Flanders, the edition was 500 copies, which cost 
£500, " a good round sum in those days,* 

+ Strype, p. 63,64. 

J As a proof of the wish of the reformers to bring every thing to the 
standard of the scriptures, Burnet says, speaking of the year 1536, 
"while the convocation was deliberating respecting the reforming of the 
church, that Cromwell, by the king's order, coming to the convocation, 
declared to them, that it was the king's pleasure, that the rites and cere- 
monies of the church should be reformed by the rules of Scripture, and 
that nothing was to be maintained, which did not rest upon that authority; 
for it was absurd since that was acknowledged to contain the laws of 
religion, that recourse should rather be had to Glosses, or to the decrees 
of Popes, than to these." Hist, of Keibrin, folio, Book iii. p. 214. 


Indeed he always had a great value for the Scriptures 
because they were the word of God ; and extraordinary 
desirous he was, from the very first entrance upon his bishop- 
rick, that the people might have the liberty of reading it ; 
and for that purpose to have it interpreted into the vulgar 
language ; and so by Cromwell's means he got leave from 
the king, that it should be translated and printed. The 
care of the translation lay wholly upon him ; assigning little 
portions of this holy wort to divers bishops and learned men 
to do ; and to his inexpressible satisfaction, he saw the work 
finished in this year, about July or August. 

" As soon as some of the copies came to his hand, [Graftou 
sent him six,] one he sent to Cromwell, entreating him that 
he would present it from him to the king, (and no question 
he thought it the noblest present he ever made him ;) and 
withal to intercede withhis majesty, that the said book might 
by his authority, be both bought and used by all indifferently ; 
both which Cromwell did, for which the archbishop was full 
of gladness and gratitude ; and wrote two letters to him 
soon after one another, wherein he thanked him most 
heartily, telling him, how he had made his memory famous 
to posterity within the realm, among all such as should here- 
after be favourers of God's word ; and that he should hear 
of this good deed of his, at the last day. That for his part 
it was such a content to his mind, that he could not have 
done him a greater pleasure if he had given him a thousand 
pounds, and that such knowledge would ensue hereupon, 
that it should appear he had done excellent service both to 
God and the king. 

" The largest Bible printed, 

" The largest English Bible coming forth in print this 
year, wherein our Archbishop out of his zeal to God's glory, 
had so great an influence. I shall here take occasion to 
give some account of the translation of it, as well as I can, 
there having been no exact story thereof any where given 
as I know of. Called when it came out, 1540, the Bible 
of the largest volume. They [Grafton and Whitchurch] 
intended also in order to their edition, to have the former 
translation revised, and to omit several prologues and anno- 
tations. And Miles Coverdale' was the man, now, that 
compared the translation with the Hebrew, and mended it 
in divers places, and was the chief overseer of the work. 


But though they left out Matthews', that is, Rogers' notes, 
yet they resolved to make hands and marks on the sides of 
the book ; which meant, that they would have particular 
notice taken of those places, being such texts as did more 
particularly strike at the errors and abuses of the Romish 

"Aboutl538the Bible was finished in Paris, the King writ- 
ing to Francis, King of France, to request for a subject of his 
to imprint the Bible in English in his dominion, both in re- 
gard of his paper and workmen. Letters patent were accord- 
ingly granted. But notwithstanding this Royal License, such 
was the overswaying authority of the Inquisition at Paris, 
that the printers were had up into the said Inquisition, &c." 
An instrument dated Dec. 17, 1538, was passed to prevent 
the work going on ; but before this happened, they were 
gone through even to the last part of the work, and then 
great troubles arose : the printer was sent for by the In- 
quisitors, and charged with certain articles of heresy ; and 
the Englishmen likewise that were at the cost and charges 
thereof, [Grafton and Whitchurch] and the corrector Co- 
verdale. Therefore finding it not safe to tarry any longer, 
they fled away as fast as they could, leaving behind them all 
their Bibles, the impression consisting of five and twenty 
hundred in number, which were seized. And if you would 
know what was done with them, the Lieutenant Criminal 
caused them to be burnt in Maubert-place* as heretical 
books. Only a few escaped, the Lieutenant selling them 
for waste paper to an Haberdasher.f being about four dry 
vats full. But however, not long after, the English that 
were concerned in this work, by the encouragement 
of Cromwell went back unto Paris again, and got the 
presses, letters, and printing servants, and brought them 
over to London; and so became printers themselves, 
which they never intended. And so at length in this year, 
1540, they successfully printed off the Bible of the largest 
volmite: and after that there were sundry other impres- 
sions also. 

"To this impression of the Bihle, that came forth in 
these troublesome times ; and through extraordinary oppo- 
sition, the King gave countenance, commanding the buying 

* Fox says, "like Smithfiehl." 

+ " To la[) caps in, says Fox, and those were bought again, but the 
rest were burned, to the great and unfortunate loss of those that bare the 
charge of them." 


and setting it up. For as it had been printed about three 
years before ; and Cromwell the King's Vicar General in 
his Injunctions in the King's name, had ordered all incum- 
bents of livings to provide one, and to set it up publicly in 
their churches; so this year the King, by his proclamation 
on the fourth of May did command that this Bible of the 
largest volume should be provided by the curates and 
parishioners of every parish, and set up in their churches. 
It was not above two years after that , the Popish 
Bishops obtained of the King the suppression of the Bible 
again. Grafton when examined what the notes were, he 
added thereto, replied, '* that he added none to his Bible, 
when ke perceived the King and his Clergy not willing to 
have any"* 

In another part of his work Strype speaks of this Bible 
as having been ornamented with a title-page, which we 
shall presently describe, and concludes by saying, " In the 
midst of which it was written."— The Byble in Englysh, 
that is to saye, the content of al the Holy Scripture, 
both of the Olde and New Testament, with a Prologue 
thereinto made by the Reverende Father in God Thomas 
Archbishop of Canterbury. This is the Byble appointed 
to be read in churches. 

"Printed by Edwarde Whytchurche cum privilegio 
ad imprimendum solum." 

Tyndal's Bible, 1532. 

The Bible of this year, mentioned by Strype and Fox, 
was printed at Antwerp by this expatriated and zealous ser- 
vant of Christ. Before he was driven from his home on 
the borders of Wales^ in disputing with one who was reputed 
to be a learned man, he forced him to this as a consequence 
of his argument; " We had better be without God's laws 
than the Pope's." Fired with zeal for God's honour, our 
noble young countryman exclaimed, "I defy the Pope and 
all his laws;" adding, "should God spare my life a few 
years, I will make the boy who drives the plough, belter 
acquainted with the scriptures than you are." 

He lived to accomplish this his noble design, and in the 
year above mentioned, the Bible, consisting of four books, 
was printed by him at Antwerp ; it was thus divided : 

* Strype*s Life of Cranmer, p. 81, 84, 185. 

+ It has not been yet decided whether he were a Welchtnan or an Eng- 
lishman y it is enough to know, that he was a Briton. 


l.The five books of Moses ; 2. From Joshua to the Song of 
Solomon, [or Solomon's Ballette;] 3. From Isaiah to 
Malachi ; 4. The New Testament. 

The first part, the Pentateuch, very neatly printed in 
small 8vo. may be seen in the British Museum, " Emprinted 
at Malborow, in the land of Hesse, by me Hans Luft, the 
yere of our Lord, M.CCCCGXXX." The last part or the 
New Testament, is also there. Several copies of the second 
edition are in the museum, printed by Martin Emperowre, 
Antwerp, M DXXXIV. There is one copy there of this 
edition, most beautifully printed and illuminated on vellum, 
after the manner of a popish missal, presented by Tyndal, it 
should seem to ANNA, REGINA ANGLIC, in the year 
1534, two years before this unfortunate queen, the friend 
of the reformers, was sacrificed to the caprice of the king, 
and the malice of the Papists. 

Tyndal's initials no where appear in this copy, though they 
do in another of the same impression ; his prologues to the 
Epistles are contained in it, and the " Epistles taken out the 
OLDE Testament, which are red in the church after the use 
of Salisbury, upon certayn days in the yere ;" at the end of 
it, is thus said, "These things have I added to fill up the 
leaf withal." The closing one of seven paragraphs is, " He 
that sayeth he knoweth Christ and kepeth not his com- 
maundementes, ys a lyar ; to know Christ is to believe in 
Christ, Ergo, he that kepeth not the commaundementes 
believeth not in Christ." The rendering of the 21st verse 
of the fifth chapter of the first Epistle of John, is here found, 
which gave such high offence to the papists, as expressed by 
Gregory Martin,* one of the translators of the llhemish 
Testament : " Babes kepe yourselves from ymages." At 
the time this edition of the Bible was published, the Apo- 
crypha had not been translated.^ 

Just as Tyndal had finished the book of Deuteronomy, 
and was about to print the first part of the Old Testament 
at Hamburgh, in 1529, he was shipwrecked off the coast of 
Holland, and lost all his books, money, and manuscripts : he 
had therefore to begin again. Not discouraged, he came 

* He says, tliis was " the Bible used in churches, all the reign of 
Edward VI." All the Bibles from this period till about 1560 have it. 
This text too, was written upon the walls over the doors of the churches, 
until it was ordered to be obliterated by Bonner, about 1554. 

t There is no copy it is presumed, to be found of this Bible. When the 
popish bishops obtained leave from the king to burn the New Testament, 
they took the liberty of taking another step, and burnt the Old also. See 
Lewis's History of the Translations of the English Bible, p. 143.. 


by another ship to Hamburgh, where his friend Coverdale 
was waiting for him, who assisted him in translating the 
Pentateuch, from Easter to December, " in the house of 
Mrs. Margeret Van Emmerson."* 

Desirous of obtaining all the information possible, res- 
pecting Tyndal's translation, the author addressed a letter 
to the Rev. Mr. Crisp, President of the Baptist Academy, 
Bristol (successor to the late learned and revered Dr. 
Ryland,) requesting him to examine a copy of Tyndal's 
Testament of the first edition, formerly belonging to the 
Rev. Dr. Gifford, pastor of the Baptist Church, in Eagle 
Street, London, and from the answer of Mr. Crisp, the 
following are extracts : 

" My Dear Sir, 

" I have examined Tyndal's first edition of his 
Testament. It has no title-page nor date ; nor is there any 
preface or prologue. The first page contains the com- 
mencement of the Gospel by Matthew. At the end is an 
Address to the reader, occupying three pages, in the second 
of which he beseeches ' them that are learned christenly, 
that the rudnes off the worke nowe at the fyrst tyme 
offende them not.' This is decisive internal evidence of 
its being the first edition ; in addition to which the initial 
letters being illuminated, is a proof of its antiquity, and in 
the margin are notes written with a pen, which were 
afterwards printed,^ so that it must have been printed 
prior to other editions, that contained those notes as printed. 
After the address to the reader follows a list of ' the errors 
committed in the printynge.' There is nothing besides this 
address and the errata, so that it does not contain the pro- 
logue to the Epistle to the Romans, &c. to which you 

One .Bible only in our Museum is without the Apocry- 
pha: this is a small folio, printed by R. Harrison, 1562. 
Dr. Gifford supposes it to be the first edition printed in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and to have been printed 
from the edition of the great Bible of 1541.J 
Believe me your's, dear Sir, 

very sincerely, 

Bristol, Nov. Ufi, 1825. T. S. CRISP." 

» Fox's Martyrs, vol. ii. p. 303. Edit. 1684. 

t It should seem from this circumstance, that this must be the identical 
copy from which the edition of 1534 was printed : — Tyndal's own copy. 

J This edition of 1562, mentioned by Mr. C. as being without the 
Apocrypha, is described by Lewis, p. 213, who says, " After Malachi, 


The first edition of the New Testament was published 
in the year 1526, For the next six years Tyndal appears to 
have devoted himself steadily to finishing his Old Tes- 
tament ; regardless of the abuse heaped upon him by Sir 
Thomas More, or the burning of bis Testaments by Ton- 
stal, Bishop of London ; and the conduct of the Dutch 
printers, who during that period, sent out various editions 
of his New Testament, very incorrectly printed. When 
he had printed the whole Bible at Antwerp in 1532, he 
then set himself to correct his New Testament, and pub- 
lished his second edition in 1534. The copy mentioned 
above appears to have been a unique prepared expressly 
with great labour and at a very great expence, to be a 
royal present to the young and pious protestant queen. 
He also then replied to the aspersions and abuse of the 
chancellor, whom Tonstal had called "a sort of Demos- 
thenes, iu our language, and in Latin." He found his 
match, however, in Tyndal. Demosthenes, by his harangues, 
led the Athenians to shout, " Down with Philip!" Tyndal, 
by his Bible, influenced the English to cry, " Down with 
the Pope and Popery !" 

Coverdale's Bible, 1535. 

This version was made by this companion of Tyndal, not 
from the Hebrew and Greek, as his bad been, but as it is 
expressed in the title, " out of the Latin and the Douche' 
into English, 1535." 

On the title page are these texts ; 

St. Paul, 2 Thess. iii. 
" Pray for us that the worde of God maie have free pas- 
sage and be glorified, &c. 

1 Paul, Col. iii. 
" Let the worde of Christ dwell in you plenteously in all 

Josue i. 
" Let not the boke of this law departe out of thy mouth, 
but exercise thyself therein daye and nighte, 8cc." 

the volume of the bokes called Hagiographa. Imprinted at London in 
Whiteeross Street, by Richard Harrison, the yeare of our horde a thousand 
fyve hundred thre score and two. Cum privilegio, Sec." In the title page it 
is said, "according to toe translation which is appointed to be read in 


There is no doubt but this edition was printed at Antwerp, 
though no printer's name appears to it,* as it is dedicated 
most loyally to king Henry VIII. as " the onely Head of 
the Church under Christ upon earth, by your majesty's lov- 
inge subjecte and daylye oratour, Myles Coverdale." It is. 
fair to presume, that this work had been obtained, and 
its expences borne by lorcT Thomas Cromwell and Dr. Tho- 
mas Cranmer, who found the Scriptures in the mother tongue 
essential to carrying on the reformation, which was so 
happily begun. 

This is divided into five books : the fourth of which is 
the Apocrypha ; (i. e. eleven books of it, the "Song of 
the Three Children in the Oven," and the " Prayer of 
Manasses," were reserved forthe next printed Bible.) "Unto 
these also belongeth Baruc, whom we have set amonge 
the prophetes, next unto Jeremie because he was his scrybe 
and in his tyme." An address is prefixed to this apocrypha, 
entitled, " The Translatoure to the Reader," pointing out 
the character of these books as being essentially distinct 
from them that went before ; at the close too of "the pro- 
phete Baruch," which is placed after the " Lamentations 
of Jeremy," it is said, " The ende of the prophete Baruch, 
which is not in the canon of the Hebrue." 

It is perhaps more surprising considering this edition was 
made partly from the Vulgate, that all the apocryphal books 
were not interspersed, rather than that Baruch should have 
been so ; doubtless the intercourse which the translators had 
with Luther, led them to separate and to put them toge- 
ther in one bundle at the end. 

This was the jirst time the Apocrypha appeared in our 
in other- tongue ! The following is on the last page of the 

" A faute escaped in pryntinge the New Testament, upon 
the fourth leafe, the first syde, in the sixte chapter of St. 
Mathew, * Seke ye first the kyngdome of heaven, &c.'rede 
' Seke ye first the kyngdome of God, &c.' Prynted in the 

* In a very splendid and expensive work, entitled, 'Tvpographia, &c." 
by T. C. Hansard, 1825, it ia said, p. 117, speaking of Richard Grafton 
the printer, that " he had lived at Antwerp, and printed for Tyndal there 
his New Testaments, and afterwards his Bible revised and corrected by 
Miles Coverdale.— Also that he professedly practised printing in London, 
in 1537." For he was probably the merchant who imported Coverdate's 
Bibles into England ; as we know he did Matthews', printed at the same 
press, in 1537, but he did not become a printer in London nntil 1539. 
These are not the only errors in this work that require to be corrected. 

'. CO 

yeare, of out Lorde, M.D.XXXV, and fynished the fourth 
daye of October." 

There was another edition of this translation printed in 
Southwarke for James Nicholson, 1537. This was the first 
Bible printed in England. 

A copy of this Bible is in the Baptist Museum at Bristol. 

Matthews's Bible, 1537. 

This was the edition of which Strype says, " that Grafton 
presented six copies to arehbishop Cranmer, one of which 
he presented to the king, through lord Thomas Cromwell, 
the privy seal ; and which the king so graciously received 
that they were allowed to print in large red letters at the 
bottom of the title page, set forth by the king's ma- 
jesty's licence. This was printed at Antwerp, and was 
nothing more than a second and revised edition of Tyn- 
dats Bible of 1532. Before it was all completed the 
author finished his course, as "a godly martyr." 

It has no printer's name ; the pompous and flattering 
dedication to the king, is signed, " your Majesty's loving 
subject, &c. &c. &c. 

Thomas Matthews." 

This it is generally known was a fictitious signature for 
John Rogers, who had corrected the press, and added the 
Apocrypha to Tyndal's work. Had the stern protestant 
reformer lived to see this edition completed, it is not pro- 
bable he would have suffered his noble work, to be thus 
defaced and corrupted by the addition of these fabulous and 
erroneous books. 

The attempt however to disguise Tyndal's work, by 
giving it the name of a fictitious author, which was a 
crooked policy, arising from the fear of man which bringeth 
a snare,* was not snfficient to preserve this edition from 
being proscribed the next year, 1558. The king prohibited 
all persons for five years, from printing or publishing any 
edition of the Bible or Testament, without first getting 
permission from lord Thomas Cromwell, or some other of 
his majesty's privy counsellors. This permission appears to 
have been obtained by archbishop Cranmer, Richard Taver- 

* Rogers became divinity reader of St. Paul's, and vicar of Sepulchre's 
parish in the next rejgn. He was condemned and burnt by the name of 
Rogers, alias Matthews, in the first year of Mary's reign. 


ner, and Richard Grafton ; whose respective editions we 
proceed to notice. 

The apocryphal books are here called " Apcripha," &c. 
A copy of it might be seen in the British Museum. 

Cranmer's Bible of 1530. 

The reasons assigned by Fox for the suppression of 
Matthews's Bible, which, to the mortification of the popish 
Bishops, had been " set forth with the king's most gracious 
licence," were because it contained some of Tyndal's 
Prologues; and also, " in the same book, says Fox, was 
one special table collected of the common places in the 
Bible, and the Scriptures, for the approbation of the same, 
and chiefly about the sapper of the Lord, and marriage of 
priests, and the mass which there was said, not to be found 
in Scripture." 

The Archbishop immediately adopted the expedient 
mentioned by Strype of dividing Tyndal's edition of 1532 
into separate parts, and giving a part to each bishop for his 
revisal, hoping thereby to procure such a sanction to the 
Bible, that the prejudices against Tyndal's translation might 
no longer prevent the free course of the word of God 
among the people. 

This was printed by Rychard Grafton and Edward 
"Whitchurch, cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum, 1539. 
And was said to be " truly translated after the veryte of 
the Hebrew and Greke textes, by the DYLYGENT studye 


The Apocrypha is here called for the first time H'AGIO- 
grapha.* In this edition of these books we find •' two 
books of Hester." " The songe of the III Chyldren in 
the oven;" and " the Prayer of Mannasseh." 

These were prefaced by an Epistle " fo the Reader," 
said to have been written by Calvin, and translated by 
Archbishop Cranmer for this edition : " In consideracyon 
that the bokes before are founde in the Hebrew tonge, 

• Hanwgrapha. Lewis remarks, " This title being favourable to the 
Papists' notion of these books being part of the Canon, or of authority 
in matters of faith, it is no wonder it is countenanced by them. However 
the edition of this impression, as well as those which went before them, 
had plainly distinguished these books, hij placing them in a distinct tome 
by themselves, whereas in the Latin Bibles they are dispersed among the 
canonical books without anv distinction at all." Lewis's History, p. 130. 


receaved of all men, and that the other followynge, which 
are called Hagiographa, because they were not wont to be 
redde, not openly and in- comen, but as it were in secret 
and apart, are neither founde in the Hebrew nor in the 
Chalde, in whych tonge they have not of long been 
written, &c. • 

" Wherefore, then, when thou wilt maynteyne any thyng 
for certen, renderyng a reason of thy fayth, take heade to 
procede therein by the lyving and pytthye Scriptures 
folowynge St. Peter, which sayth, He that speaketh let 
him speake as though he spake the word of God, &c." 

A copy of this edition may be seen in the British Mu- 
seum, and in the Baptist Museum at Bristol. 

Taverner's Biblb, 1539. 

In this same year 1539, there was an edition of the 
Bible, " newly recognized with great dylygence after 
most faithful exemplars? 

" By Richard Taverner. 

" Hearken thou heven, and thou earth gyve eare, for the 
Lord speaketh." Esai. i. 

" Prynted at London, in Flete Strete, at the synye of 
the Sonne, by John Bydell, for Thomas Barthlett. 

" Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum." 

After this title, there is a dedication to the king, and 
other matters very similar to Matthews' of 1537. 

" The volume of the bokes called Apocripha, couteigned 
in the common translacion in Latin, which are not found in 
the Hebrue, or in the Chaldee." 

Taverner was a learned man, having taken the degree of 
Batchelor of Arts at Oxford, 1529. In 1534 he was taken 
into the service of Sir Thomas Cromwell, then principal 
Secretary of State, and by his recommendation, was, in 
1537, made one of the signet in ordinary. In this post he 
made the above said " Recognition" of the English Bible 
being, very probably, encouraged so to do by his master, 
now Lord Cromwell, to whose control the King had left 
the business respecting the Bible for five years. It is said 
that he was remarkable for his knowledge of the Greek 
tongue, and that when residing in the Inner Temple, before 


going to Court, it was usual with him to quote the law 
in Greek ! 

He does not appear to have made many alterations from 
Matthews' prohibited edition. It was doubtless an ex- 
pedient of Lord Cromwell to keep the Bible still in cir- 
culation, being now accredited by a man like Taverner, 
who was celebrated for being a most excellent scholar. 

Copies of this edition are in the British and Bristol 

The following account of this extraordinary man is ex- 
tracted from the Biographical Dictionary of Chalmers. 

Richard Taverner, a pious layman, was born at Bris- 
ley, Norfolk, 1505. He studied logic in C. C. C. Cam- 
bridge. He was one of the learned scholars invited by 
Wolsey to his new college at Oxford. In 1540 he was 
committed to prison for a short time after the death of his 
patron, Lord Cromwell. On the accession of Edward VI. 
though not an ordained clergyman, he had a license granted 
him in 1552 to preach throughout the king's dominions. 
On Mary's accession he was compelled to desist, and re- 
turned to Norbiton-hall, near Kingston in Surry. When 
Elizabeth came to the throne he presented to her a con- 
gratulatory epistle in Latin, and resumed his preaching in 
Oxford and elsewhere. In 3569 he was, made High 
Sheriff of that county. He appeared in St. Mary's pulpit 
with his chain and sword of office, and is said to have thus 
commenced one of his sermons: " Arriving at the mount 
of St. Mary's in the stony stage [a pulpit of stone] where 
I now stand, I have brought you some fine biscuits, baked 
in the oven of charity, and carefully conserved for the 
chickens of the church, the sparrows of the spirit, and the 
sweet swallows of salvation." He wrote much to promote 
the Reformation He died at his seat at Woodeaton, in 
Oxfordshire, July 14, 1575, and was buried in the chancel 
of that church. \ t .j 

The Bible of the Great Volume, 1540. 

Grafton and Whitchurch having the French types, 
presses, printers, &c. they now recommenced their work, 
to supply an edition of their Version, instead of that which 
the Inquisition had destroyed.* In the years 1540 and 

* Fox says, " Rut yet one thing more is to be noted, that after the im- 
printers had lost their Bibles, they continued suitors to Boner, [Bonner 


1541, three separate copies of this Bible, as revised by Cov- 
erdale in Paris, of the same size appeared, which were dis- 
tinguished from that which the Bishops had revised in 1539, 
at the wish of the Archbishop. This is known by the ap- 
propriate designation of the Bible op the larger 
Volume, or the Great Bible: on account of its being 
of a much larger size than any former edition. Each of 
the copies referred to were printed by Grafton and Whit- 
church, with the same general title, notwithstanding they 
were so different from each other. Strype has confounded 
them with the edition of 1539, and has thus misled all other 

The title of the first copy of this is, "The Byble in 
Englyshe, that is to say, the content of al the holie scrip- 
ture, both of the Olde and New Testament, with a prologue 
thereunto, made by the Reverende Father in God, Thomas 
Archbishop of Canterbury. This is the Bible appointed to 
be read in Churches, Prynted by Edward Whitchurch, 
cum privileaio, ad imprimendum solum.* M.DXL. 

It^loesnot appear that this edition was ever reprinted. 
The mterspersion of some of the apocryphal books, instead 
of appending the whole of them, seems to have been adopted 
upon a principle of accommodation to meet the prejudices 
of the Roman Catholics ; but like all measures of this kind, 
which God will always confound, it did not answer the 
proposed end. 

Lewis says, " Another edition, or rather copy of this Bible 
is in Bishop More's Library, now the Royal Library at Cam- 

the bloody] to be a means to obtain of the French king their books i again . : 
but so long they continued suitors, and Boner ever fed them with fair 
words, promising them much but did nothing for them." Fox, v. ii.p. 435. 

♦ It is of this edition that Lewis has said, p. I3G, " the Apocrypha being 
omitted." From the general reputation of that writer, there was no reason 
to think that respecting a fact which concerned a fifth ■part of the whole 
volume any mistake could have been made. On searching the volume, 
however, which belongs to "Sion College Library," it was found, that 
though the apocryphal books were indeed omitted in their separate form, 
as in each of the former editions (excepting Tyndel's) yet some of them 
were interspcrsedwiih the canonical scriptures, Next to " Paralipomenon" 
the books are in the following order, " Esdras, Tobi, Judith, Esther, Job, 
Maccabees, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Sapience, Ecclesiasticus, 
Psalter, Esai, Jeremie, Barnch, Daniel, Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdi, Jonas, 
Micheas, Nahum, Abuka, Sophoni, Aggai, Zacharie, Malachi." The 
New Testament follows in the regular order of the books as we now have 
them in the received Version. 

This circn in stance proves that respecting matters of fact, on which im- 
portant results depend, an author should trust no ones eyes but his 
own. It wilt remain too as a proof that Lewis had not read all the books 
of which he has given such precise descriptions. 


bridge, which has, printed at the end, " Fynyshed in April, 
M.CCCCCXL;" and another in Lord Oxford's, said to be 
"Fynyshed in May, M.CCCCCXLI, and printede by 
Rycharde Grafton." There is another of the same year, 
printede by Edward Wliitchurch, cum privilegio ad im- 
primendum solum, 1540." 

In this year, or the beginning of the next, there was 
another edition of this Bible, " to be frequented and used 
in every church, &c." It was said in the title page, " Over- 
seene and perused at the commandment of the Ky age's 
Hyghness, by the Right Reverende fathers in God, Cuthbert, 
byshoppeof Duresme, and Nicholas byshoppe of Rochester. 
Printed by Richard Grafton, cum privileaio" &c 

Notwithstanding these were bigotted popish Bishops— 
Tonstall and Heath — yet the apocryphal books were not 
interspersed as in the other edition, but printed separately. 
There is a copy of this in Sion College library, from which 
Cranmer's Prologue and Preface, &c. are excluded : and 
without any thing else in their place- 
It was to this edition that a wood engraving was given. 
To the fine illuminated copy on vellum* in the British 
Museum, and to that which was edited by the bisbops of 
Durham and Rochester (a copy of which may be seen also 
in the British Museum), this is prefixed to both the Old and 
New Testaments. It affords abundant proof of the zeal of 
the Reformers thus to express their thankfulness to the king 
for sanctioning the Bible, and of their employing every 
means to give it celebrity and circulation. A description 
of this plate is subjoined : a fac-simile of it has been given 
by the Rev, T. H. Home, in his " Introduction to the 
Critical Reading of the Scriptures," &c. 

" Around the title in a border, is the following represen- 
tation, finely cut in wood, and designed, it is said, by .Hans 
Holbein. On the top of it is a representation of the Al- 
mighty in the clouds of heaven, with both his hands stretched 
out, and two labels going from his mouth. On that going 
towards his right hand are the following words, Verbum 
quod egredietur de me, non revertitur ad me vacuum, sed 

* This was doubtless the copy -which wa3 presented to the King on this 
joyful occasion. It has several things bound up with it not in the other 
editions, some of which prove that the donor had not shaken off all his 
popish prejudices. The following is written on the first leaf, "This toolte 
is presented unto your most excellent Hijrhnees by jour loving, -faithful], 
and obedient subject anddaylye oratour, 

Anrhonye Marter of London, Haberdasher." * 


facit qutzcunque volui, Esa. lv. (1) His left hand points to 
the king, who is represented kneeling at some distance 
bare-headed, and his hands lifted up towards heaven, with 
his crown on the ground before him, and a label going out 
of his month. On the label which comes from the Almighty 
is this text, Invent virumjuxta cor meum, qui faciet omnes 
voluntates metis, Acts xiii. (2) to which answers that issuing 
from the king, Lucerna pedibus meis verbum titum. Psalm 
cxix. (3) Underneath the Almighty is the king again repre- 
sented, sitting on his throne with his coat of arms before him 
at his feet. On his right hand stand two bishops bare-headed, 
and their mitres on the ground, in token, as it should seem, 
of their acknowledgement of the king's supremacy. The 
king gives to the bishop next him, a book shut, with these 
words on the cover, VERBUM DEI, and these words on 
a label going out of his mouth licec precipe ei doce. Tit, ii. (4) 
The bishop reoeives it bending his right knee. On the 
king's left hand stand several of the lords temporal, to one 
of whom he delivers a book clasped, with Verbum Dei 
on the cover of it, and the following words are on a label, 
a me constitutum est et decretum, ut in universo imperiq 
et regno meo tr'emiscant et paveant deum viventem, 
(5) and on another label this text, quod justum est indicate, 
itaparvum audietis ut magnum, Deut. prima. (6) The no- 
bleman receives the book bending his left knee. Underneath 
the bishops stands Archbishop Cranmer, with his mitre on 
his head, and habited in his rochet or stole over it. Before 
him is one kneeling with a shaven crown and habited in a 
surplice, to whom the Archbishop delivers a book clasped, 
with the words VERBUM DEI on the cover of it, and 
saying to him these words as they are in a label coming out 
of his mouth, pascite quod in voois est gregem Chrisli. (7) 
1 Pet. v. Behind the Archbishop seems to stand one of 
his chaplains, and at his feet are placed his [the Archbishop's] 
coat of arms, within a garland, (the same as those prefixed 
to his Life by Archbishop Cranmer) only here it is dis- 
tinguished by the arms of a younger family. Under the 
lords temporal stands Cromwell, the king's vicegerent, as 
appears by his coat of arms, as the Archbishop's are.. . His 
lordship is represented standing with his cap on, and a roll 
of paper in his right hand, and in his left a book clasped, 
with VERBU M DEI on the cover of it, which he delivers 
to a uoblemah, who receives it of him bare-headed, with 
these words on a label going out of his mouth, Diverte a 


tnelo et fac bonum, inquire pacem et sequere earn, (8) Ps„ 
xxxiii. At the bottom at the right hand is represented a 
priest with His square cap on in the pulpit, preaching to a 
pretty large auditory of persons of all ranks and qualities, 
orders, seses and ages, men, women, children, nobles, 
priests, soldiers* tradesmen and countrymen, who are repre- 
sented some standing and others sitting on forms, and ex- 
pressing themselves very thankful. Out of tbe preacher's 
mouth goes a label With these words, Obsecro igitur primum 
omnium fieri obsecrationes, orationes, postulationes, gra- 
tiarum actiones, pro omnibus kominibus, pro regibus, fife. 
1 Tim. ii. (9) On the right side of the pulpit are the words 
Viva/f Rex, and in labels coming from the mouths of the 
people and even children, VIVAT REX, GOD SAVE 
THE KING, to express the great and universal joy and 
satisfaction, which. all the king's subjects, high and low, great 
and small, had, and their thankfulness to the king, for his 
granting them this privilege of having and reading the 
Holy Scriptures in their mother-tongue. 

"On the left side are represented prisoners looking out of 
the prison gates, and partaking of this great and common 
joy."*f : 

The price set by the king upon this large volume was 
" ten shillings unbound, and not above twelve shillings well 
bound and clasped." 

At the close of this Bible is "The ende of the New 
Testament, and of the whole Byble, fynyshed in Apryl, 
anno 1539. 
"A deo factum est istud." Psalm cxviii. 23. 

* Lewis's History, p. 122, 124, 137. 

f An explanation of the latin here employed, is given from the splendid 
copy in VeLLDSl, to which it is prefixed. 

1. " So the word also that cometh out of my mouth, shall cot return 
again unto me void." 

2. «'I have faande a man after my owne heart, which shall fulfyll al 
my wyll.*» 

S. M Thy word is a lamp to my fete." 

4. "These thinges teaclie and exhorte." 

5. " My comumndment is, that in all my dominyon and kyngdom that 
men fear and stand in awe of God." 

6. " Heare th<e cause of your brethren— but hear tbe small as well as 
tbe greate." 

7. *' Feede the flock of God whiche is among you. 

8. " Peparte from evill and do good, seeke peace and pursue it. 

9. " I exhort, therefore, that above all things, prayers, supplicacyons, 
intercessions, and. geving of thanks be made for all men ; tor kynges and 
for all that are id auctoritie." 

k a 


It was not long after this that the popish clamour against 
the translation of the Bible as being imperfect, &c. was 
revived. Archbishop Cranmer proposed a new translation 
and appointed to every Bishop a part. But instead of 
complying- with this proposal they ultimately prevailed on 
the king and the Parliament to prohibit all copies of 
Tyndal's version ; so that they were '* forbidden to be kept 
and used in this realme or elsewhere, in anie the king's 
dominions." But it was provided, '* that the Bibles and 
Testaments in English, not being of Tyndalle's translations 
should stand in force and not be comprised in this abolition 
or act. Nevertheless, if there should be found in anie 
such Bibles or Newe Testaments any quotations or pream- 
bles, that then the owners of them should cut or blot the 
same in such wise as they cannot be perceived or read, on 
pain of losing or forfeiting for every Bible, &c. 40s. Pro- 
vided it should not extend to the blotting, &c. any quotations 
or summaries of chapters of any Bibles." It was likewise 
enacted, " That no manner of person or persons after the 
first day of October then next ensuing, should take upon 
him or them to read, &c openly to others in any church or 
open assembly, within any of the king's dominions, the 
Bible or any part of Scripture in English, unlesse he was so 
appointed thereunto by the king, or by any ordinance, &c. 
on pain of suffering a month's imprisonment. Provided, 
that the Chauncellor of England, capitaines of the warres, 
the king's justices, the recorders of any citie, borough, or 
town, the speaker of the Parliament, &c. which heretofore 
have ben accustomed to declare or teach anie good vir- 
tuous or godly exhortations in anie assemblies, may use any 
part of the Bible or Holie Scripture as they have been 
wont ; and that every nobleman and gentleman beiug a 
' householder may read or cause to be read by any of his 
familie, servants in his house, orchardes, or garden, and to 
his own familie anie text of the Bible or New Testament ; 
and also every merchant-man, being a householder, and any 
other persons other than woman prentices, &c. But no 
woman except noblewoman and gentlewoman, who might 
read to themselves alone and not to others, any texts of the 
Bible, &c. nor artificers, prentices, iourneyman, serving-men 
of the degrees of yeomen [servauntes, commonly called 
younge men or gromes] or under husbandmen, nor labour- 
ers, were to read the Bible or New Testament in English 


to himself or to any other publicly or privately upon pain 
of one month's imprisonment." 

On the passing this act, was the following remark was made 
by a poor shepherd in a spare leaf of an English abridg- 
ment of Polydore Virgil's book of the invention of arts, 
&c. which he bought about this time, 1546. When I 
kepe Mr. Letymer's shype, I bout this boke, when the 
Testament was obberagated, that shepeherdys might not 
rede hit. Wryt by Robert Wyllyams, keeping shype 
upon Seynbury [Sunbury] hill, 1546." 

The next year another royal proclamation was issued, in 
which Coverdale's translation was forbidden as well as 
TyndaVs, annexing as the penalty of transgression, "impri- 
sonment and other punishment at the king's pleasure, and 
being fined by his Majestie or four of his counciL" 

Neither Strype, nor Fox, who furnished him with his 
information, appears to have been aware that there were 
three distinct editions, or separate versions of the grkat 
Bible*, essentially and widely different from each other! 
Those historians that have followed them, have sauntered 
in this beaten-path without making any correcting obser- 
vations on their journey ; meeting with frequent obstruc- 
tions, but being too indolent to attempt removing them out 
of the way : thus they have frequently stumbled themselves 
and caused others to fall into similar mistakes on this 
subject: they were unable, it should seem, from their suffering 
the conflicting and contradictory statements to remain, to 
extricate themselves from the labyrinth in which they were 
lost, or to recover themselves from the confusion in which 
they felt themselves to be involved, 

Edward VI. 1553. 

Most or all of the editions of the Bible were reprinted, 
and some of them several times during this short, but 
glorious and eventful reign. It was not wonderful the 
Reformers should have called this incomparable Prince, 

* This term is improperly applied to Cranmer's Bible, which is of no 
larger size than Matthews's Bible. Strype confounds the edition pre- 
pared by Cranmer, 1539, with that of 1537, and also with that called 
the Bible of the largest volume in English. The Archbishop was much 
engaged in getting out this latter ; but it is never called Cranmer's Bible, 
that teroi applies only to the edition of 1539. 


Josiah, nor that they should have mourned his premature 
death, as all Judah and Israel did when Josiah was taken 
away from them. 

One of these editions at least was without -the apocry- 
phal books. The first part of this is in -small 8vu. It is the 
Pentateuch of Tynda], and may be seen in the British Mu- 
seum. The priqter tells the reader that " he- had printed it 
in iiii bokes for the use of the pore." 

. It is not a little singular, that the apocryphal books 
should have been printed separately in the year 1549. 

This small volume is entitled, " The volume of the bokes 
called Apocrypha ; containing these bokes following : — 

The thyrd boke of Esdras. 

The Song of the iii Children, 

The fourth boke of Esdras. 

The storye of Susanna, 

The boke of Tobit. 

Thestorye of Bel & the Dragon. 

The boke of Judith. 

The prayer of Mannsseh, 

The rest of the boke of Hesther. 

The i boke of Maccabees. 

The boke of Wisdome. 

The ii boke of Maccabees. 


The iii boke of Maccabees. 

Baruch the Prophet. 

The following is the Address of the translators. 

" To the Reader — Good christian reader, ye shal un- 
derstand y' in these bokes commonly called Apocripha, we 
have taken the labour to confer them with the translation 
of Leo Juda, and finding therein more than is contained 
in bur common Bibles, it was thought good by learned men 
to supply our wairt by their examples. And because we 
lacked so much' in some bokes, that it was more easy to 
translate tbem anew, than briefly to note the defect, we 
have even so done as it. doth appear to the reader; And 
where both the copies fully agreed we have altered nothing 
in the common translacion. This we thought to warne 
thee of (gentle reader) that thou should est not be offended 
with the alteraeion of the text, as we have done nothing 
rashUy of our owne head, nor without cause, and that the 
matter itself is nothing at all changed, wherein is declared 
more at large. 

"And although these books be notfounde in the Hebrew 
nor in the Chaldeei and for that not taken of so great au- 
thoritie as be the other bokes of the Holy Bible, yet have 
the bolie fathers alwaies so esteemed them y' worthily they 
call them (libros ecclesiasticos, or bokes mete to be read 
among the whole congregacion,) namely for that they do 

agree with the other bokcs of the Holy Bible, and contain 
most godly examples and precepts of the feare and love of 
God and our neighboure. Wherefore they are diligently 
to be rede, and the training in them earnestly to be followed 
that by our good example of livynge, the name of our 
heavenly Father throughout all nacions may be praised and 
glorified, to whom onlie be honour and glorie, for ever. 

" Imprynted at London, by John Day, dwellynge in 
Aldersgate, and William Seres dwellynge in Peter College- 
Cam privilegio ad imprimendum solum" 

It appears to the writer, that this is the only instance that 
is to be met with, in which the apocryphal books are pro- 
perly treated. Lamenting most deeply that they were ever 
translated into our mother tongue, the best thing now to do 
respecting them would be to have them always printed in 
a volume alone, for their edification, who think them 
edifying books ! 

Articles op Religion of Edward VI. 1552. 

Speaking of the Reformation having attained to its 
highest perfection in the year 1552, Burnet says,, "The 
Convocation did confirm the Articles of Religion that had 
been prepared the former year, and thus was the Reformation 
of doctrine now brought to such perfection, that since that 
time there has been but very little alteration made in them."* 
He then mentions a design of making a Reformation of 
the Ecclesiastical lams ; the completing of which was 
frustrated by the premature death of the king, July 6, 1553. 
He says, " The first title of it was concerning the Catholic 
faith : it was made capital to deny the Christian religion. 
The books of Scripture were reckoned up, and the 
Apocrypha left ouT."f 

This statement respecting the omission of the Apocrypha, 
receives full confirmation from the published Articles of 
King Edward, forty-two in number, " Imprinted by John 
Day, 1553." The fifth of which is entitled, 

* He should have mentioned this trijiing addition to the 21st Article., 
called in those of 1662 the 20th, as follows : — " The church hatk power to 
decree rites and ceremonies, and authority in controversies of faith ; and 

yet"* ■ 

■f Burnefs Abridgment, book ii. p. 169. 

* Sparrow's Collections, p. (JH. 

7 a 

" The doctrine of Holy Scripture is sufficient to salvation : 
" Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salva- 
tion : so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be 
proved thereby, although it be sometime received of the 
faithful as godly and profitable for all order and comeliness, 
yet no man ought to be constrained to believe it as an 
Article of Faith, or reputed requisite to the necessity of 

That the young king was prepared to go the utmost 
length of reducing every thing in the church to the stand- 
ard of the Scriptures, and of the Scriptures alone, there is 
the most abundant evidence. There is in the British 
Museum a copy of a work written by this most extraor- 
dinary pious youthful monarch, at that time but sixteen 
years of age, "Against the Pope's Supremacy." It is 
dedicated to his "most dear and beloved Uncle, the Duke 
of Somerset," the Regent, "From onr Palace at West- 
minster in London, this last day of August, 1552." An 
extract from p. 65, will confirm the observation made 
above: "But I know very well, that our reli- 

ov our Fathers, but in HOLY SCRIPTURE and 

Elizabeth, 1559-1603. 

Passing over the reign of Mary, in which the English 
Bible was proscribed and burnt, we mention an interesting 
anecdote which speaks volumes as to the delight felt by the 
citizens of London on the return of a Protestant govern- 
ment, and the delight they felt at the prospect of being again 
permitted to read the Bible in their mother tongue. 

" When the queen passed through the city from the tower 
to her coronation, in a pageant, erected in Cheapside, an 
old man with a scythe and wings, representing Time, ap- 
peared, coming out of ahollow place or cave, leading another 
person all clad in white silk, gracefully apparelled, who 
represented Truth, (the daughter of Time,) which lady had 
a book in her hand, on which was written verbum veritatis, 
the word of truth. It was the Bible in English, 
which, after a speech made to the queen, Truth reached 
down towards her, which was taken and brought, by a 
gentleman attending, to her hands. As soon as the queen 

* Sp;m'(jw'd t'ollectiuus, i». 42. 


received it she kissed it, and with both her hands held it up f 
and then laid it upon her breast, greatly thanking the city 
for that present, and said, she would often read over that 

Articles op Religion -op Queen Elizabeth 
in 1562. 

The following alteration and additions were now made in 
what is called the sixth, article, but which was the fifth in 
king- Edward's. The title reads tons : — " Of the sufficiency 
of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation." The additions 
thus: " In the name of the Holy Scripture we do under- 
stand those canonical books of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, of whose authority was never any doubt in the 
church." " Of the names and numbers of the canonical 

** Non habetur in R, Edw, 6. Artie" 

The books of the Old Testament are as in our version, 
;' and the other books (as Hierorae saith) the church doth 
read for example of life and instruction of manners, 
but yet doth not apply them to establish any doctrine. 
Such are these following : 

" The third book of Esdra3 

The fourth boot of Esdras 

The book of Tobias 

The book of Judith 

The rest of the book of Hesther 

The book of Wisdom 

.J.esus the son of Sirach 

Baruch the Prophet 

The Song of the three Children 

The Story of Susanna 

Of Bel and the Dragon 

The Prayer of Manesses 

The first book of Maccabees 

The second book of Maccabees." 

Geneva Bible, 1559. 

, The exiled Protestant ministers who fled on the accession 
of Mary to the throne, ultimately settled at Geneva. Here, 
in 1555, they undertook a new translation of the Bible, 
since called the Geneva Bible. The translators were Bishop 
Coverdale,f Goodman, Gilby, Whittingham, Sampson, 

* Johnson's History of the English Translations, p 67, 68. 

+ Miiea Coverdale, born in Yorkshire, in the reign of Henry VII, 
was educated in the Romish religion, and became an Augustine monk. 
After embracing the reformed religion, he was one of the first who taught 
the purity of the gospel. He became bishop of Exeter in the reign 
of Edward VI. August 14, 1551, "on account of his extraordinary know- 
ledge in divinity, and his unblemished character." Upon Mary's accession 
he was ejected from his bishoprick, thrown into prison, and would doubtless 


Cole, Knox, Bodleigh, and Puliain. They published the 
New Testament in small 12mo. 1557. This was the first 
instance of its being divided intonurnerical verses, the whole 
Bible was published in 1559. 

There is in the British Museum an edition of this work, 
most beautifully printed, it is supposed, at Geneva, April 
1561. It is precisely the size (though much thinner) of the 
Volume of the Great Bible. There is a very respectful, 
but remarkably faithful dedication to the queen. It contains 
the apocryphal books. Before them is placed what is 
called " The Argument." , 

" These bookes that follows in order after the Prophets 
unto the Newe Testament, are called Apocrypha, that is 
bookes, which "were not received by a common consent to 
be read and expounded publicly in the church, neither yet 
serve to prove any point of Christian religion, save inas- 
much as they had the cqrtsent of the other Scriptures, called 
canonical!, to confirm the same, or rather whereon they 
were grounded ; but as bookes proceeding from godly men, 
were received to be read for the advancement and fur- 
therance of the knowledge of the historie, and for the in- 
struction of godly manners ; which bookes declare, that at 
all times God had a special care of his church, and left 
them not utterly destitute of teachers, and means to confirm 
them in hope of the promised Messiah, and also to witness 
that those calamities God sent on his church were according 
to his providence, who had both so shewed by his prophets, 
arid so brought it to pass, for the destruction of their enemies* 
and for the trial of his children." 

This was not suffered to be printed in England until after 
the death of the archbishop. An edition of it printed 
in 1576, is entitled, "The Bible; that is, the Holy 
Scriptures contained in the Oldc and Newe Testament, 
translated according to the Ebrewe and Greke, and con- 
ferred with the best translations, in divers languages, with 
most profitable annotations upon all the harde places, and 

have been burnt had he not been reluctantly released by the queen, at the 
powerful intercession of the king of Denmark, by whom he was per- 
sonally known. He then went to Geneva, as has been said. On queen 
Elizabeth's accession he returned from his exile, and might have been 
restored to his bishoprick, but he refused to accept it. He died in a good 
old age, in London, and lies buryed in the church of St. Bartholomew Ex- 
change. * 

' Biognih. BritUQ. v. 3, Art. Covtrdale. 


other things of great importance as may appear in the 
epistle to the reader. 

" Fear ye not, stand still and see the salvation of the Lord 
which he will shew you this day. Esod. xiv. 13. 

" Great are tbe troubles of the righteous, but the Lord 
delivereth him out of them all. Psal. xxxiv. 19. 

"The Lord shall fight for you, therefore hold you your 
peace. Exod. xiv. 

"Imprinted at London, by Christopher Barker, dwelling 
in Pawle's Churche-yard, at the signe of the Tiger's Head, 
1576. Cum privilegio" 

Then follow, 

1. The Dedication, "To the most vertuous and noble 
Queene Elizabeth, Queene of England, France, and Ire- 
land, &c. Grace and peace from God the Father, through 
Christ Jesus our Lord." 

2. A Preface, " To our beloved in the Lord, the brethren 
bf England, Scotland, Ireland, &c. Grace, mercie, and 
peace through Jesus Christ."* 

Having had an opportunity of perusing a copy of the edi- 
tion, printed in 1576, above described, the reader is in- 
formed, that from this Bible, which may be consulted by any 
respectable person, the Apocrypha is excluded, and there 
is no appearance that those books ever made part of the 


BisHors' Bible, 1568. 

A copy of the first edition of this Bible being a new 
translation, adhering closely to the large volume in English 
of 1540, was called the Bishop's Bible, because it was per- 
formed bv fourteen dignitaries of the church of England, 
most of whom were bishops. It is exactly the SIZE of the 
Geneva, and of the Great Bible, or Large Volume. 

This contains all the apocryphal books, called Apo- 
crypha, and separated from the volume, but without any 
Preface or Argument to describe their uninspired character, 
The Apocrypha in this volume was translated by the 
learned Dr. Parkhurst, Bishop of Norwich. 

Lewis, who has placed his account of this Bible before 

* Lewis's History, p. 265. 

+ Mr. Lewis says the apocryphal books were in the copy which he hail 
seen. The copy consulted by the writer is in the possession of Mr. Tho- 
mas George, Lamb's Conduit Street, London. 


that of the large volume of Geneva, though not published 
until nine years after it, says of it, p. 230, " The Archbishop 
met with better success, in this his excellent undertaking 
than his predecessor Cranmer bad done. For with so 
much cheerfulness and" readiness did the several bishops and 
others to whom his Grace sent the several parcels of the 
Bdble to review, and his instructions, concur with him in this 
his good design, that some time before the year 1568, it 
was all finished and ready for the press; so that in this year 
it was printed and published in a pompous manner in a 
large folio, and on royal paper, and a most beautiful English 
letter, and embellished with several cuts of the most re- 
markable things in the Old and New Testament and Apo- 
crypha, and maps finely cut in wood, and other draughts 
engraven on copper!" It is certainly more "pompous," 
but not half so elegant as the Geneva large Bible, which 
Xtevnsforgot to notice. 

From the contents of this chapter, we learn, that the 
first English Bible did not contain the Apocrypha; and 
that, -except in two subsequent editions, none of those 
books have ever been interspersed with the canon of Old 
Testament Scripture ; that in some cases they have been 
entirely excluded from the volume of the Bible ; and that 
in all others, when they have been admitted into it, they 
have been carefully separated and distinguished from the 
inspired books, by either the term Apocrypha, or Hagio- 
grapha being prefixed to them ! Also, that in various 
editions, as those of Coverdale, Matthews, Cranmer, and 
the Geneva, an explanation of their real character, as 
uninspired productions has accompanied them. Nothing 
can be more evident then, in regard both to English as well 
as foreign Protestants, that they have taken this ground in 
their opposition to the papists : viz. the perfection of the 
Canon of the Scriptures, irrespective of the Apocrypha. 
Should the Bible Society ever make such a fundamental 
departure from the principles on which it was constituted, 
as to sanction the Papists in their having intermixed and 
presumptuously canonized those uninspired productions, 
they will, as respects Protestant principles, have gone more 
degrees backward than did the shadow in the sun-dial of 
Ahaz : an appropriate designation for the Society will be, 
should such an affecting alteration ever take place, "And 
so we went towards Rome!" 




The names of these divines were Dr. Carlton, Bishop 
of Llandaff; Dr Hall, Dean of Worcester, afterwards 
Bishop of Norwich ; Dr. Davenant, afterwards Bishop of 
Salisbury ; Dr. Samuel Ward, master of Sidney College, 
Cambridge ; and Mr. Balcanqual, a Scotchman, commis- 
sioned also by King James to represent the church of 

" In the ninth session held by the Synod, the 21st day 
of November, 1618, it was deliberated whether the apocry- 
phal books should be translated and added to the canonical. 
Gomarus said, ' they ought not to he joined to the latter, for 
fear that as it happened in Popery, the said apocryphal 
boots should pass in time for divine and canonical.' One 
of the Utrecht remonstrants said, ' What will become of 
the catechism then! Will not that pass in time for a cano- 
nical writing, since it is joined to the Testament V And 
when somebody found fault that people took texts out of 
the apocryphal books to preach upon, the same remonstrant, 
asked, ' whether it were not as great a fault to expound the 
catechism publicly in the churches ;' and added, 'that he 
did not see why there should be more authority ascribed to 
the catechism than the Apocrypha.' Gomarus said fur- 
ther, ' that it was a kind of idolatry to honour the apocry- 
phal books so far as to join them with the canonical.' To 
whom the president Bogerman replied, ' if that be idolatry, 
it is no less so, to insert the Explanations in the text of the 
Bible, which, however the church has approved ; and the 
same objection is against the catechism.' 

" The members having offered their reasons on all sides, 
it was agreed to take time to consider of this matter. Upon 
which at the tenth session, the 22nd of the month, they 
came to a conclusion, and they were just upon the point 
of banishing the apockyphal buoks from among the 
CANONICAL, some of the foreign divines said, that they 

» FuUer'a Worthies, p. 153. 


had no instructions upon this head, and that they could 
not agree to such a resolution, without the knowledge and 
to the prejudice of other churches. It was then agreed 
by most voices, tlutt the APOCRYPHA should he trans- 
lated anew from the Greek, but not with so great caution 
as the canonical books; that they should be distinguished 
from the latter by a particular title, with an intimation 
that they were HUMAN WRITINGS, and with a warning 
and confutation of the errors contained in them. It was 
moreover judged advisable by the Ireland divines (for the 
foreigners did not think fit to give any vote in this affair,) 
that they should not be any longer placed between the Old 
and New Testament, but at the end op the Bible."* 
From this account it appears that, but for some of the 
foreign divines, saying, that they had no instructions re- 
specting these hooks, and therefore could not vote respect- 
ing tliem, this famous Synod would have banished them as 
intruders from the region of the canonical books ; — that a 
majority of voices (whether great or small is not said,) 
agreed that the apocryphal writings should be newly trans- 
lated from the Greek ; but even with this majority they were 
thought so little of, that there was no. necessity for any great 
caution about the matter ; — that they should be plainly 
marked as human writings, containing such errors that they 
could not be sent forth without an antidote accompanying 
the poison; and that all the continental ministers were of 
opinion (which even the British ministers did not oppose,) 
that the apocryphal books should no longer be permitted 
" to part asunder what God had joined together;" and there- 
fore if they could not agree to banish them entirely from the 
book, they were all of an opinion they should occupy the 
very last part of it ; at least, that if the Bible were to be read 
regularly through, that the apocryphal books, which they said 
were " merely human writings, some of which were spuri- 
ous, and others mixed with Jewish fables and legends, such 
as the histories of Judith, Susanna, Tobit, Bel and the 
Dragon, and above all Esdras, (generally called the III. 
and IV. and in our present Bibles the I. and II.) and as 
other books contained doctrines and narratives opposed to 
the canonical books, and as they were not JOINED to 
the Sacred Volume of the Old Testament, either in the 
Jewish or Christian church, that theyshouldnotberead 

* Brandt's History of the Reformation, Vol. iii. book xxxiii. p. 25, 2G. 


until the solemn malediction contained in Rev. xxii. 18. 
had been first read. For I testify to every man that hear- 
eth the words of the Prophecy of this book, If any 


book ; or as the pious, and learned, and eloquent Bishop 
Hall, one of the members of the Synod, had about four 
years before said in his work entitled, "No Peace 
WITH Home," on this awful subject regarding intermix- 
ing the Apocrypha: — "We know .full well, 


* As the Popish Defence Society are at present very active in circu- 
lating their Tracts, for the purpose of assuring the lower order of Pro- 
testants that they are not guilty of idolatry in worshipping a piece of 
bread, until forsooth they had first manufactured it into "the body and 
blood, and soul, and divinity of Jesus Christ," it would be rendering 
an acceptable service, if any one or more of our Tract Societies would 
publish the above as a cheap Tract, as also his " Serious Dissuasive 
from Popery." 




The Annual Reports, and the accredited history of the 
proceedings of the British and Foreign Bible Society prove 
most undeniably that it was not the design of its original 
supporters to circulate the apocryphal Books. It is the 
Bible Society, and by that title it was always understood 
by its members, was intended the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testament. The standard copy, which 
they engaged to circulate in England, was the authorized 
version, meaning thereby, that Bible which is " appointed 
to be read in churches;" with the exception of the 

If the Committee had regulated their conduct by the 
strict letter of their rules, and not by the spirit and con- 
siiiution of the Society, there is no doubt but they might 
have circulated the apocryphal books even in the United 
Kingdom ; because the phrase authorized version of the 
Bible means more than in " common parlance " in language 
the most unequivocal, that copy set forth by authority by 
James I. which includes, as the component part of the 
volume the Apocrypha, placed between the Old and New 

Though the authorized version has imitated the " Bishop's 
Bible," in giving no explanation of the uninspired books, 

* That this was the understood meaning of the Committee in 1817, 
may be demonstrated by the following fact: — Messrs. Eyre & Strahan, 
the King's printers, were employed, in tbat year to print for the So- 
ciety a long primer 8vo. edition of the authorized version. From in- 
attention on the part of those who gave the order, not making it plainly 
understood, that they thereby intended the Old and New Testament 
without the Apocrypha ; or from the printer having forgotten that exception 
was made, they actually printed the apocryphal books. It has been 
said, this was against the express order of the Committee ; however, 
that might he, the Committee resolved, on the 3rd of November, 1817, 
" That no more copies of the above Bible be issued,"* 
" Gorham's Statement, p. 20. 


and has not warned the people against their errors, &o. 
yet it has described several of them : as " The rest of the 
chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in 
the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee," though it names the chap- 
ters as if they made part of the book of Esther. So also, "The 
Song of the Three Holy Children, which followeth in the 
third chapter of Daniel after this place, fell down bound 
into the midst of the burning fiery furnace, ver. 23. That 
which followeth is not in the Hebrew, to wit, And they 
walked— unto these words, Then Nebuchadnezzer, ver. 24!" 

So we find, " The History of Susanna, set apart from 
the beginning of Daniel, because it is not in the Hebrew, 
as neither the narrative of Bel and the Dragon." But 
what is better, at the top of every page, is the word Apo- 
crypha ; it required, however, an explanation, uninspired, 
or fabulous would have been better still. 

The authorized versions of foreign Protestant churches 
resemble the English, in regard to the separation of the 
Apocrypha, some placing it in the middle, and others at 
the end of the Bible. That the Committee considered 
themselves bound by the fundamental laws to encourage 
the circulation of the Old and New Testament only, 
without the apocryphal books appended to their versions, 
appears from their having resolved again and again to re- 
commend that whatever money was voted to those So- 
cieties from the funds of the Parent Society should be ar> 
plied solely and exclusively to the purchase of the books of 
the Old and New Testaments. 

That the Society has never circulated the apocryphal books 
at home, is the best exposition of the manner in which this 
fundamental rule has been understood. 

The scrupulosity manifested by the Committee when Dr. 
Leander Van Ess applied for assistance to circulate his 
translation of the New Testament, requiring him to ex- 
punge the notes,* &c. shew that they then thought no 
human appendage should be allowed even to meet the 
prejudices of Roman Catholics ! Why had not the trans- 

* The writer has been informed by a person, whose information on the 
subject must be correct, that though Dr. Leander Van Ess agreed to 
obliterate the notes and comments of his New Testament, jet theconi- 
mittee were obliged to submit to the lalin words " penance" " do penance,'' 
and " Except ye do penance, ye cannot he saved," being retained, &c, 
instead of a term being employed of the same import as the English 
word " repentance" 

The following is the Trentine decree " Of the Most Holy Sacrament Lf 


lator then urged that there was no Roman Catholic version 
of the New Testament without notes, and, that to leave 
them out, would make it resemble a Protestant version ; he, 
on the contrary, consented to remove the human addition, 
and the bigotted Roman Catholics of Germany, as they 
are now represented to be, have received hundreds of 
thousands of copies, though in its form resembling Luther's 
Version of the Scriptures* 

Penance."— Can. 1. " If any one shall say, that penance in tUt; Catholick 
church, is not only truly and properly -a sacrament [an outward and visible 
sign of an inward antl spiritual grace} instituted by our Lord Christ, for 
the reconciling the faithful unto God, as often as they shall fall into Bin 
after baptism, let him Ite accursed." Can. 2. " If any one confounding the 
sacraments shall say, that baptism i 1st' If is a sacrament of penance, as if 
they were two distinct sacraments, and so that penance cannot rightly 
be called the second plank aftkrsiiipwreck, let himbe accursed." Can. 3, 
" If any one shall say, tiiat the words of our Saviour, receive ye the Holy 
Ghost, whose sins ye remit they <u e remitted, and whose sins ye retain, they 
are retained, are not to be understood of the power .of remitting and re- 
taining sins in the sacrament of penance, as the Catholic church hath 
always understood them, and shall wrest them contrary to the institution 
of this sacrament, to the authority of preaching the gospel, let him he «- 
cursed." Can. 4. " If any one shall deny, that three things are required in 
a penitent, as the matter of the sacrament uf penance, to the full and per- 
fect remission of sins : viz, contrition, confession, and satisfaction, which 
are called the three parts of penance; or shall say, that there are but only 
two parts' of penance: viz. the terrors of conscience after having acknow- 
ledged their sins, and faith conceived by the, gospel or by absolution, by 
which one believes his sins to be forgiven him through Christ, let him he 

The whole of this antichristian decree, consists of fifteen Canons, all 
of which are directly intended to oppose the Gospel doctrines of repeu- 
tance towards God and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ, as being es- 
sential to salvation, and as every thing which is absufntely essential -to it ; 
and placing the merit of salvation in "voluntary fastings, prayers, alms 
and other works of charity," and in the power of a l'liest, who by l>ivine 
right, " can forgive sins, Jfec.* 1 

purely no one will doubt but that the Committee in adopting this trans- 
lation of Dr. Lcander Van Ess, and thereby recognizing the sense put 
upon the subjects of repentance and faith, by the council of Trent went a 
great length in " accomodating themselves to the prejudices of the weaker 
brethren*' among the superstitious Roman Catholics ! In this one instance, 
to say the least, they acted upon the sentiments advocated by Messrs. 
Simeon ami Venn, and " to the weak, they became as weak!"* But 
the question is, whether they acted rightly and therefore tritely, in thus 
prostituting the money of the Society, say j£30,00O in the purchase 
of the vitally corrupted, received and authorized Romish version of the 
New Testament? This question ought to be closely considered by the 
Committee; and before another pound is voted for this object, it should 
by suBsfa-ititd, scriptural and Protestant arguments he instantly decided, 
*' Whether it is not a gross alienation of the funds of the Society, to 
expend them in the purchase of a Popish New Testament?" It i» an 
excellent maxim, well expressed, of the noble president of the Society, 
Lord Teigumouth, and which should be the polar star, by which in future 
they should guide all its :i(Liii- . " Whatf.vku is right rs wise.'* 


But when the same pious and zealous Catholic priest 
applies to the Committee to assist him to publish his trans- 
lation Of the Old Testament, containing the apocryphal 
books intermingled with the sacred text, and not to be 
distinguished from it, lest it should be suspected to be 
Luther's version ; then all the objections of the Committee 
go for nothing with him; all his prejudices as a Roman 
Catholic are brought into play, and he will sooner confine 
himself to the circulation of the New Testament, than 
expose himself and his* Old Testament to the suspicion of 
being favourable to the reformed churches. His simple 
request, in fact, is this, " Will you help me to publish the 
authorized version of the church of Rome ? To circulate 
the pious- frauds of the Council of TVenf. ; to rivet the 
prejudices of my countrymen against pure and undefined 
religion;" and thus, to serve probably the design of some 
Jesuit, to make the funds of even the English Bible Society 
subservient to the propagation of the chief errors of that 
An ti- christian church; in a word, requiring the Bible So- 
ciety to violate its fundamental rule, to prostitute their la- 
bours and their funds and to give their strength and power, 
to assist the man of sin, the son of perdition, 

Are there not good reasons to conclude, that under 
a divine blessing, the Old Testament, even if reduced 
to a Protestant form, as to the order of the books, 
would be received by the Roman Catholics of Ger- 
many? Hear how this worthy man speaks, in a Idtter, 
dated Darmstadt, April 26, 1824. te The inquiry after 
my translation exceeds belief, from clergymen as well as 
from laity; since there are no other Cal/tolic translations 
in the German language, excepting such as are filled with 
notes and comments, and in general sell at a very high 
price, which cannot be paid either by clergy or laity in 
these times of distress. The demand for my version when 
fully completed, will be so considerable, that 100,000 
copies will be required. Wherever my New Testament 
has found access, and Christ is revealed by its perusal, 
the people are anxious to seek him also in the prophecies 
and types of the Old Testament, I receive letters by 
every mail containing applications for copies."* 

And yet, Dr. Leander Van Ess assures the Committee 
that merely on account of " the order and succession of 

* Twenty-first Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society. App. 
No. iv. p. 18. 

G 2 


the Biblical books" being; altered by the proposal of se- 
parating the apocryphal from the canonical books, " many 
weak-minded Roman Catholics, both clergy and laity, 
.would probably be so irritated that they would not receive 
it." What ! Those persons to whom " Christ has been 
revealed, by the perusal of the New Testament," and who 
are anxious to seek him also in the types of the Old, that 
these should reject it in their mother tongue, because some 
enemy pleases to say to them, " I can assure you, that the 
stories of Tobit, and Susannah, and Bet and the Dragon, 
ought to make part of the Bible ; but these are not found in 
your book !" Who can believe, that a piously disposed 
Roman Catholic, however weak, would throw away his 
Bible on that account! Incredible: impossible! No, 
certainly, such persons would say as Peter did, '* Lord, to 
whom shall we go, thou hast the "words of eternal life." 

And as to " the zealots of Rome immediately denoun- 
cing it and burning it, as it would be sure to be proscribed 
by the bishops and vicars of Germany," why let Dr. 
Learider Van Ess read the history of the first English 
Bible, William Tyndal's (I expected nothing less, said 
Tyndal, than that they would burn them), and he may leam 
from that history, that nothing tended more effectually to 
circulate the Bible, and to increase the desire of the 
people to possess them. He may rest assured there wilr 
be money enough found among English Protestants, to 
supply other copies of the Bible, in the room of all that are 
burnt by the popish bishops of Germany ! Yes, even 
should they consume in one fire, the 100,000 copies of 
which he speaks! But the Writer most earnestly hopes 
that should he refuse to separate the chaff from the wheat, 
by winnowing out the Apocrypha from the Sacred 
Canon, that he may never receive another shilling of 
British protestant money towards purchasing a copy of his 
Old Testament. 

If it were not a matter of record, it would be too incre- 
dible for belief, that the committee actually made a grant of 
money to assist in the circulation of this popish version of 
the Old and New Testament !* That they had in some 
instances assisted similar versions before this, is no jns- 

* " The Society commenced its operations by undertaking, together 
with several Protectant and new versions, editions of the Sclavonic Bible, 
the French Catholic Bible (De Sacy's) and the Armenian Bible ; these 
three Bibles contain unprefaced and intermingled Apocryphus."* 

* Venn's Remark*, preface, p. 1, 


tification of their conduct : former measures were no far- 
ther precedents than as they accorded with the rules of 
the Society. Those however were aberrations, probably 
through inattention, or mistake ; but in this instance there 
is no ground for excuse : they knew the fact, that the 
Apocrypha not only composed a part of the book, but that 
it was so inwrought in its very texture, that it could not 
be separated nor distinguished from the inspired writings : 
they knew too that the whole of this book must be received 
by the people, under pain of a terrible anathema! And 
yet with all these awful facts before them, they came to a 
deliberate and decided vote, that this version should have 
their sanction ; the broad seal of their approbation ; that it 
should be translated, printed and circulated, aided by the 
funds of the British and Foreign Bible Society ! O tell it 
not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Aslcalon, that 
they have by this means encouraged millions to believe that 
the silly story of Tobias's blindness, its cause, and means of 
.cure is as much the language of inspiration, as the predic- 
tions of the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should 
follow;. Surely, it is not too much to conclude, that serious 
Protestants, whose hearts tremble at the word of God, 
and who would not willingly " grieve the Holy Spirit of 
-God," will never again grant a single pound to purchase 
writings which contradict revealed truth.; which degrade 
the person of the Son of God, which teach men to expect 
salvation from human merit, to depend on the intercession 
of saints and angels, and from which it would not be pos- 
sible to collect a single passage which has this mark or any 
other, of divine inspiration " able to make men wise unto 
saiv»tion> through faith which is in Christ Jesus."* 

■* The following quotations are given as proof of the above remarks : 
2 Esdras ii. 42 — 47. " I Eadras saw upon the mount Sion a great 
.people whom I could not number, and .they all praised the Lord with 
songs.— And in the midst of them there was a young man of a higher sta- 
ture, taller than all the rest, and upon every one of their heads he set 
crowns, and was more exalted ; which I marvelled at greatly. — So I asked 
the angel, and said, Sir, what are these? — He answered and said unto me, 
these be they that have put off the mortal clothing, and put on the immor- 
tal, and have confessed the same of God ; now are they crowned 
ceive palms. Then said I unto the angel, what young person is it that 
crowneth them, and gave them palms in their hands ? So he answered me, 
IT is the Son of God, whom they have confessed in the world. Theu 
began I to commend them that stood so stifly for the name of the Lord. 
Then the angel said unto me, go thy way, and tell my people what man- 
ner of things, and how great wonders of the Lord thy God thou hast 


For the purpose of persuading tbe Committee of the 
Parent Society, to persevere in supporting the circulation 

This is evidently a parody upon the inspired description wbicVjohn 
has given in the Revelation of the redeemed church in heaven A But how 
low, how arrogant, and how blasphemous this Esdras speaks, requires no 
comment. For him to have reduced the Lamb whom they worshipped to 
" a young man of a higher stature than the rest/' — and " to marvel that 
he was more exalted than the rest ;" — and then for him to say, that this 
" young person," who was only " a little taller than the rest,*' was, " the 
Son of God ! !" Horrible profanity ! shocking impiety ! surely this niust 
have been written by a disciple of Ffc.usrcs Sqcinius. 

The writer of the second book of Maccabees chap, xii, gives an actP&nnt 
of a number of Jews being slain in battle, on account of having been 
secretly idolaters; all the survivors " betook themselves unto prayer, and 
besought the Lord that the sin committed might be wholly put out of 
remembrance." But Judas the captain, tv made a gathering throughout 
the company, to the sum of £000 drachms of silver, and sent it to Jerusa- 
lem to offer a sin-offering, doing therein well and honestly, in that he was 
mindful of the ressurection ; for if he had not hoped that they that were 
slain should have risen again, it hadbten superfluous and vain toprayfor 
the dead. And also in that he perceived that there was great favour laid 
up for those that died godly, it was an holy and good tkwghi. Whereupon 
he made reconciliation for the dead, that- they might be delivered from sin." 
■ That the church of Rome founded their doctrine of Purgatory, upon this 
monstrous representation, not forgetting « the gathering" mentioned, is 
very evident by the comparison. Hear the "Most Holy &c. &c." Coun- 
cil of Trent ; " The decree concerning Purgatory/' passed on the 3rd and 
dlh days of December, 1368. 

, " Whereas the Calholick Church, directed imd guided by the Holy Spi- 
rit, hath out of the Holy Scriptures, the ancient traditions of the Fathers, 
and lately now in this Oecumencial Synod, taught, that there is a Purga- 
tor.y, and that the souls therein detained and holden, are assisted and 
helped by the suffrages of the faithful, but in a more especial manner, by 
the acceptable sacrifice of the Altar, [the Mass.'] The Holy Synod there- 
fore commands the Bishops, that with all possible diligence they take 
care, that this sound doctrine of Purgatory, delivered by the holy lathers, 
and sacred councils, be believed, held, taught, and every where preached, 
by Christ's faithful people. And that among the rude and ignorant peo- 
ple, all and subtle questions, Sod Ihsse things which tend not to 
edification, and whereby there is no increase ef piety and godliness, be 
wholly excluded and omitted in pubtick sermons. And that they suffer 
not uncertain and unlikely things, to be published or discoursed ; as 
likewise, those filings which tend to any nice curiosity, or superstition, or 
favour of sordid and dishonest gain, shall be prohibited, as the scandal and 
disreputation of the faithful. And the bishops shall take tare, that those 
suffrages of the faithful that are alive, (to wit,) the masses, prayers, alms, 
rttffl other works of piety, which are wont to be made for the dead by the 
living, be piously and devoutly performed, according to the church's 
institution, And whatever shall be due far such services, whether by last 
wills, or from foundations, or upon any other account, shall be carefully and 
exactly paid, by ike priests and ministers of the church, and such other per- 
sons as are bound to pay the same." 

Protestants shonld read this decree as a lively commentary upon Rev. 
xviii. Among the " merchandize of Rome, mystical Babylon the great, 
arc expressly mentioned the souls of men." We were shocked on reading 
one of the objections of M. Chabnmd, President of the Consistory of 


of the Protestant versions with the Apocrypha appended ; 
and even of the translation of Dr. Leander Van Ess, with 
the intermingled Apocrypha, one pious clergyman of the 
established church, says, M Let charity for the souls of 
mankind direct as well as animate our labour, and apparent 
difficulties will be diminished, and scrupulous objections 
decrease. Christian charity proceeds towards the at- 
tainments of its object, with a. freedom and con6dence 
which mainly contribute to its final success. It was this 
divine principle which led St. Paul to exclaim, though I 
be free from all men, yet have I made myself servant even 
to all, that I might gain the more. Unto the Jews I 
became a Jew, that I might gain the Jews. To them that 
are under the law, as under the law that I might gain them 
that are under the law. To them that are weak, became I 
weak, that I might gain the weak. I am made all 
things to all men, that I might by all means save some. 1 
And let us not doitbt the ultimate success of our labour of 
feve. By thus accomodating ourselves to the prejudices 
and ignorance of those whom we wish to serve, we shaft* 
certainly * gain the niore/ and we -trust we shall ' save 
some.* " 

John Fox having given a speech of Henry VIII. to bis 
parliament, in which the king exclaims,. "Whatloye and 
charity are there among yon, &c." says in a note/' Charity 
and concord in commonwealths be things most necessary ; 
but in matters of religion, charity and concord are not 
enough, without verity andtrub worship of god." 

Surely Mr. Venn must know that what is called charity, 
is so very undefined and so capricious, that it cannot be the 
rule for a christian's actions. If it be right to accomodate 

Toulouse respecting printing the Apocrypha with the French Bible, and 
mote particularly shocked that it did not produce any effect trpun the 
Committee of the Parent Bible Society. He alleged, that " There was 
danger of the Protestants,^? the South of France] confounding the apo- 
cryphal with the canonical books; and of their being thus led to adapt 
xame of the errors of popery, (particularly that of purgatory,) to which 
already they were too much inclined"* 

Tobit xii. 15. " I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels which present 
the prayers of the saints, and which go in and out before the glory of the 
Most High:" this impious angel had before told Tobias, v. 11 . " Now 
therefore when thou didst pray, and Sarah thy daughter-in-law, " / did 
bring- the remembrance of thy prayers before the Holy One," How totally 
opposed to the inspired injunction, " Not worshipping of angels," was 
their conduct, " Then they fell upon their faces, for they feared,'* 

* Suieaieut, Ac. by the Hev, &, Gturbam. p. 30. 


ourselves to the prejudices of others, Jiow far must we go, 
or are there no boundaries to the proper and consistent 
exercise of true charity? would he had he been in India, 
and a friend of the Abbe Du Bpis, have united with that 
liberal priest when reading the parable. of the prodigal son, 
and have substituted instead of fatted calf, fatted lamb, to 
accomodate himself to the prejuiees of the Hindoos, that by 
so doing he might gain the more ; or could he by such an' 
unhallowed mean, have trusted that he should "save some." 
Surely he could not have had any reason to boast of con- 
verts, gained by such means, or have had any good reason for 
thinking he should thus have saved any of them. The cir- 
cumstance referred to is thus related by the Abbe: — 

" In order to give you an instance of the delicacy of the 
feelings of the natives of India, with respect to the ac- 
counts found in our holybooks, that are in opposition to 
•their prejudices, I will relate the following occurrence: 

"Being at Carricaul, about twenty-eight years ago. I 
preached on a Sunday to the assembled congregation, a ser- 
mon in the Tamul language, on the divine origin of the 
Christian religion. Among other topics; to prove my sub- 
ject, I insisted on the intrinsic weakness and inadequacy of 
the means employed in the establishment of this religion, 
generally bated and persecuted every where, quijte destitute 
of all human support, and left to its own resources amidst 
every kind of contradiction. I several times repeated in 
treating this topic, that the christian religion had for its 
founder, a peasant of Galilee, the son of a humble carpen- 
ter, who took for his assistants, twelve low-born mew, twelve 
ignorant and illiterate fishermen ; these words, the son of a 
carpenter! twelve fishermen ! . many times repeated, gave 
offence to my audience, which was entirely composed of 
native christians; and the sermon was no sooner finished, 
than three or four of the principal r among them came and 
informed me, that the whole cong egatioh had been highly 
scandalized by hearing me apply to Christ the appellation of 
Me son of the carpenter, and to his apostles that of fisher- 
men ; that I could not be ignorant that the casts both of 
the carpenters and fishermen, were two of the lowest and 
vilust in the country ; that it was highly improper to attri- 
bute to Christ and his apostles so low and abject an origin : 
that if pagans who sometimes come through motives of 
curiosity to their religious assemblies, heard such objec- 
tionable accounts of our religion, their contempt and hatred 


of it would be considerably increased, &c. &c. Finally they 
advised me, if in future I had occasion to mention in my 
sermons the origin of Christ and his apostles, not to fail to 
say, that both were born in the noble tribe of the Kshalrys 
or rajahs, and never to mention their low profession. 

"Another instance of the kind happened to me a few 
years ago in this part of the country, when in explaining to 
the congregation the parable of the prodigal son in the 
gospel, I mentioned the circumstance of the prodigal's father 
having through joy, killed the fatted calf ; after the lecture 
some christians told me, in rather a bad humour, that my 
mentioning the fatted calf was very improper, and that if, 
as sometimes happened, pagans had been present at the 
lecture, they would have been confirmed on hearing of the 
fatted calf, in the opinion they all entertained, of the 
christian religion being a low or pariah religion. They 
advised me, in the mean time, if in future I gave an expla- 
nation of the same parable, to substitute a lamb instead of 
We fatted calf."* Would Mr. Venn have thought it right, 
so to have accommodated himself to the ignorance and 
prejudices of these people as to have kept out of sight the 
low origin of Christ (according to the flesh) and the bumble 
occupations of his chosen apostles? 

The same writer states that the Jesuit missionaries on 
the coast of Malabar, carried out the principle of accomoda- 
ting themselves to the prejudices of the Hindoos to such a 
length, that they actually assumed the appearance and 
costume of the Brahmins, giving out that they were an order 
of Brahmins from the West, to co-operate with their brethren 
of the East. But who does not see, that instead of their 
having converted the Hindoos to Christianity, they them- 
selves were converted to paganism ! Let Christian writers 
take heed by pleading that it is the duty of Protestants to 
accommodate themselves to the prejudices of Papists, lest 
. instead of " gaining some" of them to Protestantism, they 
tacitly encourage weak Protestants to become Papists. 

Another clergyman, venerable for his age and station, 
and usefulness, has taken similar ground. In support of the 
practice of the Society in aiding the circulation of the 
Popish Canon of Scripture, this gentleman says, "I will 
do it by an appeal to the conduct of the apostle Paul, 

* letters on the State of Christianity in India, &c. by the Abbe J. A. 
Dubois, p. 32-34. London 1823. 


in a case extremely analogous to that before lis." He then 
supposes what the apostle would have replied to o n 
who should say, in effect, that under bo circumstances, and 
on no account whatever ought Christians r * to do evil that 
good may come," He then assumes, not proves, that the 
conduct of Paul in circumcising Timothy, was " A case ex- 
tremely analogous," to that of aiding the circulation of a 
false canon of Scripture, which the Roman Catho- 
lics must believe in all its parts, on pain of eternal dam- 
nation. The following is the supposed reply, put into the 
mouth of Paul to one who had urged him to forbear circum- 
cising Timothy, &c.^-*' My record then is this : though I 
be free from all men, yet have I made myself servant unto 
all, that I might gain the more. Unto the Jews I became 
as a Jew, (to the Papist as a Papist) that I might gain the 
Jews ; to them that are under the law, as under the law, 
(to them that require the Apocrypha as requiring the Apo- 
crypha) that I might gain them that are under the law. T< 
them that are without law as without law, beingnot without 
law to God, but under the law to Christ, (to them that dis 
eard the Apocrypha as one that discards the Apocrypha,) 
that I might gain them that are without law. To the 
weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak. I 
am made all things to all men, that I might by all means 
SAVEsome." This supposed reply and the reasoning founded 
upon it is for the purpose of illustrating a supposed statement 
of Paul, made in the previous page as follows: " For the sake 
of gaining access to them, the Jews, and of ultimately sav- 
ing their souls, I feel myself authorized to give way to their 
prejudices, and to meet them upon their own ground ; and 
1 think it time enough to oppose their error in a way of 
contention, when my efforts for conciliation have failed. 
Let me see any of my Christian brethren carrying this 
concession to an extent that will be injurious to the souls 
of men, and I shall withstand them, even though Peter 
himself were the offender: yea, rather than suffer him to 
proceed in his undue compliances, I would oppose him to 
the face, and that before the whole church. But when 
concession is calculated to effect extensive good, God forbid 
that I should be averse to yield. If no such reason, 
for concession existed, I certainly should rather not 
make it, but rather than let multitudes of my Jewish brethren 
perish in ignorance, I willingly submit to it." 


The sum of this argument is, that, to aid iu circulating 
the fables of Bel and the Dragon, and other uninspired and 
erroneous hooks among the Roman Catholics, who are 
perishing for lack of knowledge, is only to be justified upon 
the principle of " accommodating ourselves to their preju- 
dices and ignorance, " but that this should by no means be 
attempted in any way that " will be injurious to the souls of 
men f The simple question we have to decide then is, 
whether giving persons uninspired books, as THE "WORD op 
God ; and without enabling them to judge of their being 
uninspired records, is not likely to be injurious to the souls 
of men ? Suppose they depend, for instance, upon the in- 
tercession of angels as mediators instead of the advocacy of 
the only mediator between God and man, Christ Jesus, will 
not this be fatally injurious to their souls ? O tell me not of 
" charity" when opposed to truth ; that is not " Christian 
charity' that puts poison into the bands of a thirsty per- 
son instead of the water of life? Let me intreat these 
reverend gentlemen to relinquish arguments which sacrifice 
obedience to the laws of Christ and sacred reverence for 
his revealed truth, upon the altar of a spurious liberality and 
destructive benevolence. 

But then as to the conduct of Paul respecting the cirum- 
cisiou of Timothy, we are gravely told by the same writer, 
" If any one set himself to answer the argument given 
above, he must prove either that the parallel drawn between 
the apostle's conduct and that of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society is not just, or that the apostle both erred in his 
judgment and sinned in his conduct" 

Of the two horns of this dilemma it is certainly wise to 
avoid the last, as we may be confident that an apostle 
in a matter of positive law, or of moral obligation on the 
sivbjeet of religion, could not err in his judgment, nor sin in 
his conduct ; we therefore endeavour to prove the case re- 
ferred to is not a parallel case witb that of the Britisb and 
Foreign Society, by giving, in addition to the Bible, 
uninspired books to those who consider them equally divine 
with the Oracles of God. 

1st. The conduct of Paul in the instance referred to, 
was no violation of the revealed Law op God; but 
circulating the apocryphal writings is so. " Add thou 
not to his words, lest he reprove thee and thou be found a 
liar" Prov. xxx. (>. 


Paul appears in this instance, as the judicious Mr. Scott 
reasons, " to have gone as far as he could consistently with 
his duty, and therefore made every allowance for their pre- 
judices, mistakes, and infirmities." He then adds, " Even 
to the Jewish converts, who still deemed themselves under 
-the authority of the ritual law, he became as ope of them, 
and joined with them in their worship, purifications, &c. as 
far. as he could without misleading them, in order that he 
might soften their prejudices and be made useful to them." 
The fact seems to be, that at the time when Paul circuiu- 
-cised Timothy, though the rite of circumcision had been 
virtually repealed by the death of Christ, yet it had not yet 
by any inspired messenger been formally repealed. It had 
"Aecayed and waxen old, andwas ready to vanish awayi— 
<Heb. viii. 13. ) ; but was not totally abrogated so as for it 
to be sinful for the Christianized Jews to observe it. They 
well knew that circumcision, as to justification, was nothing, 
and therefore Paul's circumcising Timothy, a converted 
Greek, out of regard to their prejudices, because, he had 
been brought up as a Jew, could not mislead them respect- 
ing the doctrine of justification by grace. "When in the case 
of Titus, they insisted on the necessity of his being circum- 
cised in. order to salvation, Paul opposed their prejudices, 
that he might not mislead them. But is it possible any Pro- 
testant can sanction the circulation of the apocryphal books 
as part of the inspired canon, consistently with his character 
or without misleading the Papists on a subject vitally impor- 
tant to their faith and obedience. 

2dly. The conduct of Paul was not only designed to do 
good, but was a lawful mean for effecting it ; but whatever 
may be the motive of those who circulate a FALSE Canon 
of SCRIPTURE, they are not at liberty to use an unlawful 
mean for the purpose and with the expectation of saving the 
souls of men, 

Timothy had been well instructed by his pious grand- 
father, and mother in the Holy Scriptures, and therefore 
was wellqualified for preaching the Gospel among the Jews, 
but he would have been hindered from doing so had he 
remained uncircumcised. As the son of a Gentile father, 
he was not born under the law which related to circumcision, 
and his father was under no obligation to have him circum- 
cised; nor did his.being the son of a Jewish mother make 
him of the Jewish nation, consequently he was not subject 
to its national rules ; but rather than be prevented from 


accompanying Paul while employed among the Jews, and in 
assisting to make known the gospel ; he consented to comply 
with Paul's advice, to become as if he were of the Jewish 
nation, by receiving the national rite. 

It is worth inquiry whether in the case of Timothy, cir- 
cumcision was any thing more than a question relating to a 
national custom, not to a religious rite. If so, it was nothing 
more than the alteration of the national costume would be, 
if a half caste Hindoo, who had been encouraged by the 
Missionaries to preach the gospel, was to be requested to 
wear the European dress, that he might not offend the 
prejudices of proud Europeans. But is this at all analo- 
gous to a case which ' requires evil means for effecting a 
jrood end ; and a false Canon of Scripture, must he such 
a mean, and therefore it is unlawful to employ it : we appeal 
to our readers whether it has not been shown, that these 
instances of dissi?nilariti/ between the conduct of Paul 
and that of the Bible Society destroys the perfect parallism? 
This reverend divine ought, according to his own shewing 
to oppose those to the face who by their unlawful compli- 
ances with the prejudices of Roman Catholics, stop up as 
it were, the well's mouth, and thus render it impossible that 
those who are fainting as sheep not having a shepherd 
should partake of the waters of life flowing from the wells 
of salvation opened up to them in the glorious Gospel of the 
blessed God. Being assured then, that in no instance did 
Paul sacrifice christian principle, to comply with mens* pre- 
judices, and that his avowed sentiments respecting Titus at 
Jerusalem, and Peter and Barnabas at Antioch were in direct 
opposition to the accmmodating spirit recommended by Mr. 
Simeon, which his conduct in the case of Timothy has 
been in such various ways produced to justify, we most 
heartily join with this writer in saying, " Let the Society 
at large be followers of Paul, even as he was of Christ:" — 
But let them not for the purpose of accommodating them- 
selves to the weakness of superstitious Papists, circulate a 
false Canon of Scripture, and thus so " sin against their 
weak [Protestant] brethren, as to wound their weak con- 
ciences, and sin against Christ." 

Without any intention of giving this writer offence, he is 
reminded that no such extenuating terms respecting Popery, 
as he has employed, appear in the writings of the Refor- 
mers, or Fathers of the English church ; — so did not Bucer, 
or Jewel, or Usher, or Fulke, or Latimer, or Cranmer. 


These writers, who so earnestly advocate the propriety 
and necessity of the apocryphal writings being circulated 
with the inspired volume among foreign Roman Catholics, 
speak in very measured and extenuating terms of some of 
the errors of Popery. One of them says, " The two 
apocryphal texts cited for the invocation of saints, are 
only similar to passages of canonical Scripture, such as the 
angel praying for Jerusalem, (Zech.i. 12.) and the elders 
offering up the prayers of the saints," (Rev. v. 8.) Only 
two errors out of the whole list seem to receive any sup- 
port from apocryphal quotations : — purgatory, and the invo- 
cations of saints. But in both these cases, passages are 
cited from canonical Scripture in direct support of these 
errors, while the texts from the Apocrypha contain only in- 
direct inferences !" * Surely he does not think the error of 
purgatory, that gainful traffic by which the Romish church 
has made merchandize of mens' souls, a dogmd of trifling 
importance ; or that it is but of little consequence if persons 
are taught to believe there are other mediators in heaven 
besides the Lord Jesus Christ ; the only one mediator 
between God and man I But are these the only popish 
errors which receive support from the apocryphal writings ? 
Is not the doctrine of human merit, or justification by the 
works of the law taught by them ; in opposition to the 
Scripture and Protestant doctrine of justification by free 
grace, ealled by Luther, M the article of a standing or fall- 
ing church?" But do these expressions square with this 
fundamental doctrine? ** For the just which have many good 
works laid up with thee, shall out of their own good deeds 
receive reward." "It is better to give alms than to lay 
up gold ; for alms doth deliver from death, and shall purge 
away all sin. Those that exercise alms and righteousness 
shall be filled with lite."— 2 Esdras viit. 33.— Tobif xii. 9. 

The writer entreats all the members of thisnoble Institution 
to- bear in mind, that it is at their peril they assist in the pro- 
ject of circulating human and erroneous writings as in- 
spired truth. The concluding part of the Revelation, 
chap. xxii. 18. already quoted, applies not only to the Apo- 
calypse but to the whole sacred volume; — " For 1 tes- 
tify to every one that heareth the words of the prophecy of 
this book, if any man shall add unto these things, God shall 
add unto him all the plagues that are written in this book." 
That the Roman Catholics have done this in their version 
of the Old Testament is undeniable ; and that thev have in- 


curredthe sentence in the above awful comminution is equally 
apparent. But it is said, " If any church either added 
to the Scripture or took from it, it was their coneern, and 
not the concern of the Society ; who are no more respon- 
sible for the books comprehended by this or that church, in 
their canon of Scripture, than they are for the correctness 
of the Versions that are in use among them." Of course 
the Society cannot be responsible for the act of the council 
of Trent, that first decreed the apocryphal books were in- 
spired, (which it is evident the writers of those books them- 
selves never thought,) and then directed them to be printed 
without, any marks by which to distinguish them from the 
books which had always composed the canon of Scripture. 
But is not the Society responsible to God not to countenance 
this invasion of the divine throne ; and will they not incur 
the most fearful responsibility, if by circulating such a. 
version of Scripture, they deliberately place their impri- 
matur to the shocking impiety of declaring uninspired books 
to be sacred and canonical; But it is added, " leave other 
churches to act for themselves. You have no right to 
dictate to them." Granted ; but are we at liberty to 
countenance their impious conduct in mutilating and cor- 
rupting the Sacred Volume? I trow not ; but it is con- 
tended, that by giving them the Scripture with the inter- 
spersed Apocrypha, " we shall certainly gain the more, and 
we trust we shall save some." Ifdoesnot appear exactly 
what is meant by gaining those who yet may not he saved. 
If it intends bringing them over merely to the Protestant 
church as proselytes, it is not an object worth the ninety 
thousands of pounds that are annually paid for it ; nothing 
can be thought an object suited to the dignity of- the Soci- 
ety's avowed principles, but teaching the prejudiced and 
ignorant Roman Catholics to know HIM, who is "the way 
the trath and the life," because without faith in his blood, 
there is no salvation. But is there any reason to expect 
that the Holy Spirit will bless any means to promote the 
salvation of men except his own truth ! And have we any 
reason to conclude he will employ us as his instruments in 
saving men, unless we employ " the sword of the Spirit — 
the word of God," and that alone ? 

It would be well if all the members of the Bible Society 
would reconsider the beautiful description given of the 
Holy Scriptures, and observe how totally inapplicable it is 
to the apocryphal books, which. the Roman Catholics con- 


sider as being equal to them: "The Law of the Lord is 
perfect, converting the soul. The testimony of the Lord is 
sure, making wise the simple. The statutes of the Lord are 
right, rejoicing the heart. The commandments of the Lord 
are pure, enlightening the eyes. The fear of the Lord is 
clean, enduring for ever. The judgements of the Lord are 
true, and righteous altogether. More to be desired are they 
than gold, yea, than much fine gold ; sweeter also than honey 
and the honey-comb. Moreover by them is thy servant 
warned, and in keeping of them there is great reward." 

No Protestant can imagine, that any of these divine ef- 
fects were ever, or will ever be produced by the apocryphal 
books. They will corrupt, but never convert the soul; 
they confirm the prejudices of the simple, but will never 
make them wise : they contain no information that can re- 
joice the heart of an awakened sinner, anxiously enquiring, 
what must I do to be saved I . They will rather than be the 
means of opening blind eyes, make the darkness of igno- 
rance, which Popery has brought over men's minds, more 
dense. So far from being clean, they contain much im- 
purity, and fatal error ,- — they bear not the inspired " hall- 
mark" either of truth or of righteousness ; — they contain 
nothing either valuable or pleasant to a mind spiritually 
exercised in discerning good and evil ; they have no such 
representations of the evil of sin, as are sufficient to restrain 
men from committing it; they have no descriptions of the 
beauty of holiness, which exhibit the present advantages 
connected with the service of God; they say nothing 
by which it can be known with any degree of cer- 
tainty that, " godliness is profitable for all things, having 
promise of the life which now is, and of that which is to 

Nor has the writer any intention of dictating to those who 
are the principal agents in conducting the affairs of the Bri- 
tish and Foreign Bible Society, when he intreats them to 
return to first principles, and to resolve that in future they will 
circulate only the Protestant editions of the Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testament, without the appendages of 
human writings. In the first printed circular in 1804, which 
was sent through the country, inviting the co-operation of 
the clergy, dissenting ministers, &c. &c. signed by the pre- 
sident, lordTeignmouth, itis said, " The Society which now 
takes the liberty to address you, founds its claims to your 
notice, upon the nature of its object, to promote the 


ABROAD; an objeet in which every one, who professes the 
religion of Christ must feel a deep interest,"* 

That the Committee, in the early part of the Society's la- 
bours, considered themselves proscribed from encouraging 
any human writings, however unexceptionable, appears from 
their proceedings respecting the Moravian translations of 
the Scriptures among the Esquimaux on the coast of La- 
brador, in 1809 ; — ■" A difficulty occurred in the course of this 
undertaking,'* says Mr. Owen, " which gave the Committee 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society another opportu- 
nity of testifying their vigilant and zealous regard for 
the simple object of this Institution. By a practice 
general among the Brethren's congregations, a translation 
had been made of the Harmony of the Scriptures, into the 
language of the Esquimaux; and the petition of their Se- 
cretary was, that this Harmony might be printed, for their 
benefit at the Society's expence. To this proposition the 
Committee objected; considering any mode of printing the 
Scriptures, but that which exhibited them as they stood 
in the CANON, to he a deviation from the letter and 
spirit of their Institution ."f Even so lately as five years 
ago, ft is evident, that no departure from the original rule 
was contemplated. How else can the language of the 
three Secretaries be understood in the following, extracts 
from an official circular letter sent to the continental Bible 
Societies, dated 15th of May, 1890? ''The British and 
Foreign Bible Society," they say, "owes its present pros- 
perity, next to the blessing of the Most High, to the sim- 
plicity of its object. . - . We respectfully solicit all our 
fellow- labourers and friends, never to deviate from the 
plain and avowed object of the Bible Societies^ THE cir- 
culation of the Holy Scriptures without note 
or comment. . . The British and Foreign Bible Society 
begs leave most distinctly to state, that with the ONLY ex- 
ceptions of the historical records of its transactions. . . . 
it confines itself EXCLUSIVELY to the translation, print- 
ing, and circulation of the Holy Scriptures."*; If 
the Society in future act consistently with these its often 
avowed principles, and circulate exclusively copies of the 

* Owen's Hist. v. i. p. 110. 

i Owen's History, vol. i. p. 460,461. 

% Annual Report tftt the year 1821. 



Protestant versions, they may calculate with confidence 
upon the union and co-operation of all consistent Protes- 
tants ; but if, departing from this " sole object," they en- 
courage the circulation also of the apocryphal boots and 


them not be surprized if all such persons who are members 
of the Society, act upon the recommendation of an advocate 
for circulating the apocryphal writings, and " determine to 
depart"* from their present connection with a Society, which 
will by so doing, violate its fundamental principles, act in 
direct opposition to their own conduct in the first days of 
the Institution; grieve the hearts of true Protestants, 
strengthen the hands of the Papists, and waste the contri- 
butions of its members. But should such an unhappy se- 
paration of the members of the Society take place, in con- 
sequence of such a violation, both of " the letter and 
spirit of the Institution," it is more than probable, " the 
Messing of the Most High" will be withheld from its 
future labours ;— then will be realized by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, what was said of the profaned tem- 
ple of the Jews; — " Behold your house is left unto you 
desolate:" — and then too, the exclamation when the ark of 
God was taken by the uncircumcised Philistines, may be 
written in regard to this hitherto useful and honoured So- 
ciety : — "I-chabod: the glory is departed;" or 


• Rev. C, Simeon's Letter to Lord Teignmouui, p. 15. 


SjKcimens of Tyndal's Old Testament, 1530. 
Exodus the vi. chapter. 

" And God spake unto Moses, saying unto him : I am 
the Lorde, and I appeared unto Abraham, Isaac, and 
Iacob, an Allmightie God ; but in my name, Iehovah was 
I not knowne unto them. Moreover I made an appoynt- 
meut with them to give them the londe of Cannaan ; the 
londe of their pilgrimage wherin they were straungers. And 
I have also herde the gronynge of the children of Israel, 
because the Egiptians kepe them in bondage, and have 
remembred my promysse. 

" *Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the 
Lord, and will brynge you out from under the burdens of 
the Egiptians, and wyll rydd you out of their bondage, and 
wyll delyver you wythe an stretched out arme, and wythe 
great judgementes. And I will take you for my people, 
and wilbe to you a God. And ye shall knowe that I am 
the Lord your God, which bring you out from under the 
burthens of the Egiptians. And I will brynge you unto 
the lohde over the which I dyd lyfte upp my hande to give 
it unto Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, and will give it unto 
you for a possessyon : even I the Lorde. And Moses tolde 
the children of Israel even so ; but they harkened not unto 
Moses for anguyshe of sprete, and for cruell bondage.f 

New Testament, Second Edition, 1534. 

%•' I Jesus sent myne aungell to testifye unto you these 
thynges in the congregacions ; I am the rote and the gene- 
racion of Christ, and the bryght mornynge starre. And 
the spryte, and the bryde sayde come ; and let hym that 
heareth saye also come ; and let hym that is athyrst come ; 
and let whosoever wyll, take of the water of life free. 

* A promise ov tcatamit. t Temptacyon trieth. faith. 

{ Esa. lii. 7. 


" I testify unto every man that heareth the wordes of the 
prophecy of "this boke;* yf any man shall adde unto these 
thynges, God shall adde unto hym the plages, that are writ- 
ten in this boke ; and yf snW Matt shall mynyshe of the 
wordes of the boke of this propnesye, God shall take awaye 
his parte out of the boke of lyfe, and out of the holy cyte, 
and from those things whiche are written in this boke. He 
whiche testifieth these thynges, sayth, Be it, I come 
(juyckly, Amen. Even so; come Lotde Jesu. The grace 
of our Lorde Jesu Christ, be with you all, Amen. 

The ende of the Newe Testament." 

f- These specimens, taken almost promiscuously, shew the 
manner in which all the editions of the Bible were printed 
before the division of it into verses. They also prove, 
that notwithstanding the various new translations (as they 
have been called,) of the Bible since Tyndal's, how very 
little alteration has been made, even in the style which that 
extraordinary man was enabled to employ three hundred 
years ago. With the exoeption of Covert! die's, and perhaps 
the Geneva, there is not a single edition of the English 
Bible* from Matthews's, in 1537, to the present received 
version in 1610, hut what should have been called Tyndal's 
Bible f 

* Esa 1v. 

i It appears from " A LUt of the Various Versions of the Bible, affixed 
to Lewis's History Of English Translations, printed for W. Baynes, 54, 
Paternoster flow, in 1818,* tha* in the reigha of Heflry VIII. Edward VI. 
and Queen Elizabeth, there t^ere editions printed of "his New Testament 
in tile years 1520, 1527, 1528 or 1520, 1530, three editions in 1534, two of 
his third 1550, another published by Coverdale, 1528, five in 1548, another 
(no date,) six in 1546, 1550, another 1552, 1&53, 1501, and 1566. 

Of his Old Testament, the Pentateuch was printed, 1530, 1534, and 
1551. Ediboas of the Whole Bible first printed in 1532, were afterwards, 
as revised by different persons, reprinted ; two in 1537, 1538, fivein 1539, 
two in 1540, three in 1541, six in 1549, four in 1551, three in 1553, 1562, 
1566,1568,1560, I5T8. 

These include only those called Matthews's, Taverner's, Cranmer's, and 
the Bible" bf the large Volume. It is not necessary to add ,thal all the 
other edition^ printed after the commencement of Elizabeth's reign, and 
that even the Bishop's Bible were properly speaking of his translation ; 
a similar remark will apply to the version of Ring James I. known by 
the name of the reeeived or authorised version, "newly translated out 
of the original tongues, and with the former translations, diligently 
compared and revised." In the dedication, the translators mention " the 
WQi thy men who went before theni ■** they referred doabtteBB to Tyndal, 
who was the Jirst and the chief of those worthy and noble men. 

* lllis edition contains many ert-ew. 

Introduction to Textual Criticism 

The Following Books or Ebooks will be of use to you If this current 
Ebook is helpful. Most of these Ebooks are available online, usually 

Search online for the Titles or Authors or Keywords and you 
may be able to find them, for now. 

Introduction to Textual Criticism - What each Believer should 
know before they begin their study of Textual Criticism 

If you take the time to read, and to learn, you will become more 
skilled in the Word, and in its intellectual, philosophical, personal and 
spiritual defense. In order to learn, you must study, and you Must 
learn how to READ, and you must Learn the Definitions of Words. 

Far too many people now are only equipped to read on a 6th grade 
level. That is a fine starting place, but you will need more in order to 
make sense of what is being said, and of the arguments being 

If you learn the definitions, try to remember the arguments, and try to 
remember how to advance or articulate what you believe, you will 
become a strong defender of the Faith. This will happen DIRECTLY 
in proportion to the TIME and the EFFORT and the LEARNING and 
the STUDY TIME that you decide to put into it. 

What you put into it, as the saying goes is what you will get out of it. 
A few points should be added here. This study about the intellectual 
and philosophical defense of your history and faith is an issue of 
spiritual warfare. You must understand this to be the case, and you 

must approach this kind of study (as with all Bible Study) in this 

The Bible specifically says that the Weapons of our warfare are NOT 
physical. That means that with reference to battles that are in the 
spiritual realm, we must understand how to deal with these issues 
spiritually. If you are young, you may be lucky enough to have the 
time to do this. That would be great, since many people who are older 
do not have the time. But do NOT wait for others to come along and 
teach you. Learn what you can, improve your skills, learn to read, 
learn to think, learn to ask hard questions. God can handle it. 

You must also understand the need to SPEND TIME with God, 
developing your relationship with Him. You must spend your time 
not only studying the Bible, but also praying and ASKING GOD to 
help you develop and have a LOVE for God's Word and a great sense 
of spiritual discernment. You must Pray to NOT be deceived, and that 
God would lead you to truth, and to other like-minded people. 

Not that we are in favor of spending money, but lets be realistic, go as 
far as you can with the Free Books online. But understand also that 
some of these books may not be available for Free. Some definitely 
are not Free since the books are still in print. We encourage you to 
buy copies or find some second hand [try ]. The more 
time you spend, the more you will be and become well equipped. 

You should learn to memorize the scriptures. The presumption that 
you will always have access to the books that you want, or to the 
version of the NT or OT text that you want is FALSE, and you should 
be attempting to develop your memory and learn a lot, by 

Do not expect others to congratulate you. A few may, but many today 
are afraid to think for themselves, are afraid to ask questions. 
Sometimes, when you ask questions, they become afraid because they 
are being reminded that these questions are those that they asked a 
long time ago, and they did not bother to find the answers. 
Sometimes people are reluctant to work with you not because of who 
YOU are, but because of who THEY are. We should always be 
patient and helpful to others in anycase, and whether inside the 
church or not. Most churches today are falling away from the gospel. 
They do not have the power or the spiritual understanding to be able 
to teach accurately or recognize truth. You will have to learn how 
to recognize a true body of believers from a false one, and which 
questions to ask. That is easier said than done. 

Improving your reading and your critical thinking skills are noble 
goals. Most of society wants to indulge in playing video games or in 
other activities. Those activities will NOT last. There are many 
people who are afraid to be courageous, and who are afraid of even 
trying to find courage. No matter whether you are in a chain of 
command or not, there are good leaders and then there are fear-of- 
men kind of leaders. Learning to tell the difference will help you. 

About memorization, you should know that in the 1600s and in to the 
1800s, those who wanted to become Pastors in the Church of England 
were required to have memorized all of the Psalms. As you may 
know, the College of New Jersey (now called Princeton) and Harvard 
also were originally founded to train Pastors. In order simply to have 
the chance to Attend, as a BEGINNING STUDENT, those students 
had to already be fluent in Latin and in Greek. Many of the American 
Founding fathers passed those tests and went through that training to 
become Pastors. It shows up later in the great work they did for their 

If you take a year, or even 3 months, and do all you can to study 
these books, you will be a better person for it. Leadership in the 
church, at least formal leadership, is male. That is what the text says. 
But that is NOT a reason not to study. Everyone should be learning, 
and this knowledge can be helpful to everyone. The Worth of Men 
and Women is the same concerning Salvation (PTL), but the roles of 
Men and Women are usually not the same. But the ministry of each is 
different, and who they can reach is different. Life is very short, and 
there are many ways to go astray. On the other hand, learning the 
book of Proverbs from an accurate translation, those are ways to 
encourage ourselves and find Godly guidance. 

Many people want an "instant" relationship with God. That is 
possible and must start with Salvation. But after that, the road is long, 
and good relationships take time. The best relationships, the ones that 
last, are usually the ones developed over time. God is a very OLD 
being. And almost all that He does is oriented towards teaching 
humans the LONG VIEW of life, of relationships, and of learning to 
walk with Him, and in His Word, the OT and NT. If you invest in that 
relationship and take it seriously, God will respond no matter what 
your age. No one is ever too young or too old to start. AND 
remember God takes your relationship with Him, from where you are 
at right now, not five years ago, or one year. God loves us and begins 
each day trying to help us understand Him. He will continue to 
accomplish this, but He will do this in the context of the rules that He 
has already explained in the Old and New Testaments. It must be said 
though, that a relationship with God is Not always easy. It has ups 
and down, times when you feel close, and times that feel like you are 
talking to the walls of the room you are in. Those experiences are 
BOTH normal. 

No relationship with any human will be at 100%, 100% of the time. If 
nothing else, humans are not made that way and they cannot sustain 
it. Even Moses went up to get the Ten Commandments. But that was 
not where he stayed for the rest of his life. And just to be sure, 
Everyone who wants a relationship with God is often afraid of aspects 
of it, because we are fallible and make mistakes and have no power 
because of ourselves, but is infallible and has all genuine power, as 
the world will know. So if you want a relationship with God, you 
must be prepared to spend time learning His guidelines and His ways. 

To try to approach the work of Textual Criticism somehow apart or 
divorced from our relationship with Jesus Christ is not possible. 
Spiritual Discernment (which is the basis for the study) is not possible 
for those who do not have a relationship with the one who gives 
authentic Spirituality. 

If you are thinking of postponing the study, at the very least, get all of 
the material in a place that is your place, where you can have access 
to the material. The material may not be out there for much longer, 
and you have no idea how soon that time will be. But beyond that, 
you should consider doing this as soon as possible. You, you 
personally, will need the level of strength that is being suggested 

And the reason why you will need the information is in order to be 
able to develop the spiritual strength that you will need. Whether the 
rapture takes place or not, whether the economy has collapsed where 
you are, whether disasters take place where you live, we all are going 
to need immense spiritual strength. Like anything worth keeping, it 
must be developed over time. The idea of "Instant" spiritual strength 
is not usually possible, because it takes time to learn, time to develop 

our relationship with God, and time for practice as well as time to 
learn spiritual discernment. 

The reason why you should pursue this, is very simple: there is likely 
no one else to do this, no one else who Can do it, and no one else who 
will be able to pull the pieces together to do this, in order to have 
strength or encouragement to impart [give] to you. So you will have 
to learn these things, so that you can have enough spiritual strength 
for yourself, and then maybe to help and encourage others around 

And if you are the leader in a relationship, as a guy, it is your job to 
be willing and able to try to encourage spiritually, those you are 
leading. There is little point in leading, unless you are actually doing 
that job. God does not give titles without the responsibilities or the 
job that goes with that. That is why historically, the church [the true 
church] has always cared so much about the leaders that were chosen. 

Many people will want you to accept to be a slave. Many people 
have decided to accept slavery, and they don't want you standing up 
for yourself. They also don't want you to remind them, that THIS is 
what they should be doing. 

Having constitutional rights means learning how to assert those 
rights, wherever you can, especially if you are in a nation such as the 
USA. The rights guaranteed to Americans are the only thing standing 
between the people OUTSIDE of the USA and their own repressive 
systems where they live. Many people will want you to become 
accustomed to not standing up for yourself or for what is right. 

In public schools, it is as if young men are being trained as slaves to 
be prisoners, and young women are being trained as slaves to be 

prostitutes. Learn the history of your great nation. Those who love 
Freedom love the history of England and America, because it is the 
history of true Liberty and the history of the development of true 
Freedom and true rights for each person. But some poor teachers of 
history falsely present the USA as the oppressor. That is not true. The 
record of the USA is better than the record of any other nation, and 
than the record of any other empire. Where there are problems, they 
were not caused by the USA, but rather by rich decision-makers 
within the leadership who 1) forgot God and 2) were un-godly and 
doing things to harm people. There is a term for that: they were 
oppressors and tyrants. Often bad people do bad things. Then they try 
to shift the blame for their actions [when they were in politics] to the 
people that they were supposed to represent. Don't accept the false 
guilt. Don't be tricked into feeling ashamed about your country. 
Learn the real history, not the easy answers that are usually false and 

Free Speech rights - guaranteed by the First Amendment of the 
Constitution are not intended for Popular Speech, or for things that 
are pleasant. The right to Free Speech is designed to protect your 
individual right to speak out and to disagree with others. The right to 
Free Speech protects Speech which is UN -popular, that many people 
would rather not hear. The truth is hard to listen to some times. We 
all should try to be diplomatic when possible, but we can each be 
professional and kind, and still learn to express what is true and 
accurate, whether others agree with it or not. 

The History of America is a great history. The history of the actual 
people who came here is noble, helpful, and encouraging. The same 
can be said about the history of England and the history of Ireland, 
and the History of Scotland. The same can be said of the history of 
the Reformation, which took place all over the world. Yes there are 

exceptions, but exceptions are exceptions , NOT the rule. Over and 
over, this Reformation and Protestant history is the history of helping 
others, of teaching people to read, of resisting tyranny, of having 
strength, of the help that God gave those who knew Him, and of the 
history of the preservation of Liberty and Constitutional rights. 
It was often Christians who disagreed with the English Kings who 
were oppressing people abroad, including those in India and China. 
Christians were disagreeing with their own governments, and were 
instead working to preserve the rights of the people, (but do Not 
confuse the term Christian with the Roman Catholic leaders , who 
were usually spiritual politicians who instituted their global 
inquisition. Recently those leaders have taken to continuing the 
oppression of the helpless through their scandals. ) 

And let us not confuse the history of England with the History of 
Royalty in England. The History of the Royalty in England is a sad 
excuse for weak and bad leadership in too many cases, and the good 
part of the history, is the history of the people who stood up for 
themselves. That IS something to be proud of. Much later the British 
Empire developed and did some good and some bad, but the bad was 
done, in a way that most Englishmen did not know what was being 
done in their name. The nobility departed from God and then began 
doing what is wrong. Those nations who have leaders like this often 
have a short duration. Nations that repent and install good leaders 
though, have a much better chance of being alright. God does 
respond to what the people do, and the leaders that they do replace or 
put in power. 

The history of the Church is a great and positive thing, by the term 
"church", we are talking mostly about local and independent 
congregations. We are NOT talking about Church buildings, and we 

are not talking about institutions and Hierarchies of religious 
bureaucrats who also work against freedom and against accurate 
Bibles, because the Bible teaches that the leaders are accountable to 
the PEOPLE. Millions of people know nothing about this. Millions 
of people have never even heard of the reformation, or what it did and 
accomplished, and that would apply even to American and European 
Young People. But its lessons are universal. They apply everywhere 
to everyone, regardless of where you live or where you come from. 
Christians help others Christians also, and that is universal also. Be 
the change you want to see in others. If you are young and read this, 
help your friends to understand. If you are older, then make a copy of 
this for your kids or grandkids. 

Standing up for yourself or for what is right is the right thing to do. 
But don't expect many people to agree with you, or to applaud or 
congratulate you, even in the churches. Many of these churches today 
are not authentic. And many have been visited by certain people, 
telling the church leaders not to talk about the real Bible or about true 
Freedom, true Liberty or History. Learn to be wise so you can be 
effective, and ask the Lord to give you much wisdom. If you are 
facing particular circumstances, remember the Lord can give you the 
understanding and strength to be able to handle the circumstances, 
with HIS help. 

This is a lot to take in. Each commitment will continue to require a 
commitment and re-commitment at a deeper level. Remember other 
believers have to face what you have to face, and God helped them. 
Ask God to give you the understanding to know that He is helping 
you and that He IS answering your prayers. Then again, maybe that 
you are reading this now, is one such indication. 

Now, on to the books. 

Dictionaries - The best ones are probably the 1828 and 1840 Editions of 
Noah Webster. They are online and available to you, in PDF. It is important 
to use the older dictionaries to find the definitions of older words. 

If you are a beginner in these matters, please consider the following 

Basics - Old and New Testaments in English 

The King James - this means the standard King James Version, which 
is the 1611 King James Version. 

That is a great translation. It is true that some Bible Societies did 
mess with the content. If you are not sure about your copy, obtain 
older copies online. There is the 1611 version actually online for Free 
[which is a 1911 reprint of the 1611 version]. Download it while you 

If you want to be sure that you have a real 161 1 KJV, you should 
know that there is a 1611 version that has been printed, which is a 
reprint of the 1611 version. This has been (in the past) published both 
by Holman and also by Thomas Nelson, (both leave a lot to be 
desired as they publish false versions of the text, but they also do 
publish the version mentioned). 

Beyond this, there is a version online of the KJV, which is the 1830- 
1835 version of the Edinburgh Bible Society. That is available online 
for Free also. Many of the versions of the N.T. were made available 
in several downloads. Otherwise the PDF files were found to be too 
large for most people to download them. That is just life. 

The Geneva Bible (The New Testament) is available online. There 
are several versions of this. Some have good notes, some have 
reasonable notes, and some have simply bad and wrong notes. The 
grayscale version of the Geneva Bible of 1560 is usually good. 

The Version of the Bible by Scholar Jay Green is good. It is 
translated from both the right and accurate Old Testament and New 
Testament accurate text. 

If you are using a version of the Old or the New Testament that is 
modern you should check to find out if it was accomplished 
(translated) using a Hebrew or Greek text provided by something 
called the United Bible Societies (UBS). Most modern translations 
come from that text, and that is why they almost always seem the 
same. That is also why they have almost no spiritual power within 
them. The meanings and portions of words and verses have been 
continually shaved off, altered and re-arranged. They continue to 
deny this, and students and scholars continue to find proof that they 
have indeed changed much. There are between 3000 to 5000 changes 
AT LEAST, between the historic text of the New Testament in Greek 
that the church used for 2000 years, and the versions now offered by 
United Bible Societies. They do not like to talk about this, though 
their usual approach is to ignore the question, or refuse to have a 
conversation. They also hire people who are good debaters whose 
salaries they usually pay, or who sit on the board of translation 
projects that have a relationship to the UBS. 

The UBS most common Greek New Testament version is the Nestle- 
Aland. That is simply a renamed version of the false version of 
Westcott and Hort, and of the corrupt versions used by Westcott and 
Hort. In fact, around the world, no matter what the language, when it 
comes to UBS, you will find that they are are a Westcott and Hort 

Only agency. That means that no matter which versions they use and 
advocate, they will always go back in MAJOR and MOST ways to 
the corrupt version of Westcott and Hort. These are Westcott and 
Hort Only agencies. 

The other thing that they have done is to PRESERVE the name of the 
older translations. The modern translations therefore have the 
NAMES of the Older translations, but the Content is very different. 

Unless you have been in the King James for 6 months or more, and 
memorizing the text, and learning the historic and accurate definition 
of the words, don't expect to know, or learn, or discern the difference. 

It takes time to learn to understand HOW to tell the difference. As is 
the case with law, or psychology or any complex field that uses 
words, it takes time and study, and the Holy Spirit to discern 
differences in text. 

Therefore many differences in the meanings, and in the shades of 
meaning will jump out to those who have been using a King James 
version or a Geneva Bible text. But those who have been using 
modern versions can be expected to insist that they see no difference 
at all. That, is the problem. If they respond that way go into the 
questions provided in the section about "Doing the research yourself 
and personally" , provided in the online Ebook "Hidden History of the 
Greek Testament" and then ask the modern version users the 
questions. This will help them to understand how much they have Not 
studied, and how much they need to. 

UBS has allowed people on its board that are not defenders of the 
historic Christian evangelical faith. They pride themselves on their 

cooperation with people and forces who have a vested interest in 
changed to the text of the New Testament and the Old Testament. 
The more you study, the more you will find this is the case. Not the 
least, in the case of UBS, they allowed by contract, the Vatican to 
have veto control over the content of all UBS editions since the 
1960s, (those want the source for this statement will find the proof in 
the book Fifty Years of UBS). You can also find more in the book 
The Hidden History of Westcott and Hort, and their Work , available 

Which is best: New books or Old Books ? 

Lets jump right into it. We are often taught, in this day and age, that 
the New Books are the "up to date" place to find information, and that 
the older books are 1. irrelevant , 2. boring, and 3. overly-detailed. 
The truth is that there is A LOT of information in the old books that 
many people do not want you to know about. If you learn that 
information, you may learn what really happened, and then you 
would learn to ask inconvenient questions. That is true in the area of 
History and that is also true in the area of religious freedom and 
religion. Most of the books today are written at about a 5th grade 
level. Most books today have only about 30% of the standard length 
of most books of the past. 

Most authors of the past not only knew English, but also knew Latin, 
Ancient Greek and French, and other languages. It was normal for a 
person who was learning, to learn several languages. That practice 
did not stop until right before World War I. So the older generations 
were not more ignorant or less educated. On the contrary, that would 
apply to most of us today, and we - now - are still trying to catch up. 

There is a great deal of encouraging material that has been left by 
Christians from other centuries who were writing, in order to 
encourage us. It is up to us to take advantage of that, while we can. Its 
also a good idea to have backup copies of these books even in 
Electronic form, in a place where you can use them as needed. Of 
course, even the Ebooks, most of them, can be printed out for those 
who wish to. 

The Beginner's Student or Learner List 

Books that you can expect to pay for, if you can still get them 
(buy used ) 

The Battle for the Bible by Harold Lindsell 

The Cost of Commitment by Bonhoffer 

IF the foundations be destroyed 

What does the NIV have against Jesus by Chick Saliby 

A Different Gospel: Biblical and Historical Insights into the 
Word of Faith Movement by D. R. McConnell 

The Great Evangelical Disaster by Francis Schaeffer 

A Christian Manifesto by Francis Schaeffer 

Who moved the stone by Morrison 

Tough questions that critics ask a Verdict by Josh McDowell 

Beyond belief to Conviction by Josh McDowell 

Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow by C.Cumbey 

[ Die sanfte Verfuhrung - Die Autorin beschreibt in diesem 

Standardwerk Entstehung, Lehren, Ziele und okkulte 
Wurzeln der New-Age-Bewegung. Sie enthullt beklemmende 
Parallelen zur nationalsozialistischen Bewegung und verweist auf die 

Erfullung biblischer Endzeitprophezeiungen. (1987) ] 

Betrayal: German Churches and the Holocaust 

Planned Deception - The Staging by C. Cumbey 

The Agony of Deceit by Michael Horton 

The Beautiful Side of Evil by Joanna Michaelson 

Deceived on Purpose by Warren Smith 

A Time of Departing by Ray Yungen 

Books on Demonology/Satanism by Merrill Unger 

Books on how to respond to the occult by Kurt Koch (he wrote many) 

Satan is alive and well by Hal Lindsey 

Faith for Earth's Final Hour by Hal Lindsey 

Vanished into thin Air by Hal Lindsey 

The Adversary by Marc Bubek 
Overcoming the Adversary by Bubek 

Beginner Books - FREE PDF online 

All of these are Free Online Books, at least still for now 

A Plea for the Canon of Scripture - By Edinburgh Bible 

Statement of the Bible Society relative to the Apocrypha 

VINDICATION of the Proceedings of Bible Society - related 
to Apocrypha 

The Canon of the Old and New Testament By Archibald 
Alexander - Princeton 

Historical Evidences of the Truth of the Scripture Records 
by Rawlinson 

Our Own English Bible by Heaton (Part of a Trilogy; Illustrated) 

The Bible of the Reformation by Heaton (Part of a Trilogy; 

The Puritan Bible by Heaton (Part of a Trilogy; Illustrated) 

Is the Higher Criticism Scholarly (RD WILSON) 

The Bible & Modern Criticism by R.A. Anderson 
SAYCE - Monument Facts and Higher Critical Fancies 
Doctrine of the Atonement - Eternal Life by Stoughton 
The Christ of the Gospels by Henri Meyer 
Hidden History of the Greek Testament 

Problems with the BFBS, the British and Foreign Bible Society 

Reasons for declining to assist in the extrication of dr Thomson's 
... By Adam Thomson, James Brydone, Elder of the United 
Presbyterian Church 

Divine inspiration; or, The supernatural influence exerted in the 
communication of divine truth and is special bearing on the 
composition of the sacred Scriptures : with notes and illustrations 
(1847) by Ebenezer Henderson, 1784-1858, disliked by the BFBS 
because he exposed their mistranslation of scripture as far back as the 
1800s. He wrote many good books and commentaries. 

The books of the Old and New Testaments proved to be canonical, 
and their verbal inspiration maintained and established : with an 
account of the introduction and character of the Apocrypha (1832) 

by Robert Haldane (1764-1842). His books also expose and refute the 
work of some of the errant BFBS translations. 

Review of the conduct of the directors of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society relative to the Apocrypha and to their administration on 
the continent [Europe]: with an answer to the Rev. C. Simeon, and 
observations on the Cambridge remarks (1828) by Robert Haldane; 
This exposes the insistence of the BFBS to mistranslate and to insist 
on inserting Apocryphal books while the BFBS supporters did not 

A letter to the right honourable the Earl of Shaftesbury ; president 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society [BFBS] : on the pantheistic 
and on the Buddhistic tendency of the Chinese and of the Mongolian 
versions of the Bible published by that society - By Rev. Malan - 

The inspiration & accuracy of the Holy Scriptures (1895) 
by John Urquhart 

Constitution of the American Bible Society - 1816 
You will notice that this Constitution only gives authorization to 
publish the Authorized Version of scriptures, "the version now in 
common use", which in 1816 was the King James Version. Their 
charter was changed in 1904, to allow the Revised Version of 
Westcott and Hort, which then also replaced the Textus Receptus. 
The original 1816 ABS Constitution is available online for Free 

Proceedings of the Bible Convention- Which Met in Philadelphia, 
April 26, 27, 28, and 29, 1837 . This is the documentation for the 
founding of the American and Foreign Bible Society. This happened 

after the ABS began to publish versions for India, such as the Bengali 
versions, among others, that intentionally mistranslated words 
concerning baptism, [the book dealing with the word Baptizo by 
Conant gives the historic Ancient Greek explanation of that word, 
with the quotations in context by Ancient Greek and Roman authors.] 
{Available online, at Google books. Worth the download. ) 

The ABS (American Bible Society) report of 1840 [which is now 
available online] weakly attempts to respond, but admits that the 
American Bible Society was promoting Roman Catholic Editions, 
even the deeply flawed Vaticanus-based Latin Vulgates, (see the 
work of Fulke) first at a time when the Inquisition was still taking 
place, and second on the basis of accepting to have Versions censored 
by certain Roman Catholic nations. (Regretable for a Protestant Bible 
Society, but true). Explains much about the degeneration of modern 
English versions, also published by these same Bible Societies. 

Does the Revised Version affect the New Testament by Thurcaston 

Life of Kanamori by Kanamori (on the dangers of mistranslations, 

The Only Begotten God - Article online which exposes some of the 
mistranslation of Tregelles, the Textual Critic who convince the 
BFBS to reject the Historic Textus Receptus in favor of the Nestle- 
Westcott-Hort version. Shows the weak and problematic translations 
of Tregelles. 

Universalism- A Modern Invention, and Not According to Godliness 
By Andrew Royce - 1837 

The English Revisers' Greek Text-Shown to be Unauthorized, Except 
by Egyptian Copies Discarded 

Textual Criticism by Paton 

Which Version - A search for Answers (about the Revised Version of 
Westcott and Hort) by Philip Mauro 

The higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments By Professor 
Archibald Henry Sayce (Oxford) 

Universalism Unmasked- Or the Spurious Gospel Exposed - 1837 

An inquiry into the integrity of the Greek Vulgate- or, Received text 
of the New Testament 1815 [this is a defense of the accurate text of 
the New Testament, the Textus Receptus] 

On 1 John 5:7 

"A vindication of 1 John, v. 7 from the objections of M. Griesbach" 

The paramount authority of the Holy Scriptures vindicated (1868) 

Bible Witnesses from Bible Lands- Verified in the Researches of the 
Explorers and Correspondents ... By Robert Morris 

Letters from Rome to Friends in England By John William Burgon 

The traditional text of the Holy Gospels vindicated and established 
(1896) by professor John William Burgon (Oxford) 

The causes of the corruption of the traditional text of the Holy Gospel 

by professor John William Burgon (Oxford) 

The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nicaea, Held A.D. 787, 
in which the Worship of Images 1850 (doctrinal issues of importance 
in today's world rapidly returning to Idolatry) 

Four sermons on the doctrine of regeneration, according to scripture 
and the Church of England. By George Stanley Faber - 1853 

The Meaning and Use of the term "Baptizein" - Philologically and 
Historically Investigated by T. J. Conant 

(whether this topic personally matters to you, is irrelevant. The reason 
is that frankly, that topic of salvation by baptism matters to millions 
and millions of people. So you should know what the accurate 
understanding of the words are in the Bible, and you should have the 
proof you need to defend the Biblical point of view. This book provides 
that to you - Available Free Online) 

Studies in the book of Daniel by R.D. Wilson 

Books by R.A Torrey (good for new or young believers) 

Books on Textual Criticism and Archeology by Robert A [R.A.] 

Books by professor John William Burgon (Oxford) 

Concerning the Roman Catholic Church and Textual 
Alterations or Textual Criticism 

Before anything else, if this needs to be stated, let it be clear, we 
support the Right of everyone and anyone to believe whatever the 
chose, and whether they would agree with us OR NOT, and we 
will work to preserve the rights of everyone to be able to speak 
Freely. That is what all humans should be able to do. 

God is not afraid of the conversations of Humans. He is a big 
God. He can handle it. Humans have nothing to fear, from the 
Free Speech of others. 

Do not confuse being opposed to Vatican bureaucrats and their 
mis-use of power, with being against the common people in any 
way. We support the rights of all faiths to teach the content of 
whatever they chose, within the bounds of promoting 
constitutional rights, and human freedom and human liberty. 

Each of us has the right to chose what to believe and follow. That 
is one of the rights that God gives to each Human. 

You will note that seriously, we are sticking pretty much to books 
that deal with the Roman Catholic Church and Textual Criticism. 
Those wanting books dealing with the Political Aspects of the 
Vatican may want the following books: 

History of the Spanish Inquisition - 4 Volumes Free 
by Henry Charles Lea 

The Censorship of the Church of Rome and Its Influence Upon the 
Production... -1906 - 2 Vol 

The Pontifical decrees against the doctrine of the earth's movement 
and the William W. Roberts 

Keys of the Blood by Malachi Martin 

(explains much about the Vatican worldview of politics) 

The works of Avro Manhattan (available online Free) 

Books on the issues of defense of the Biblical text and 
historic doctrines and Roman Catholicism : 

The Two Babylons by Hislop 

THe Papal System by Cathcart 

Accusations of History (Rome) by Townsend 

Saint Patrick and the Western Apostolic Churches 

The Worship of Mary by J. Endell Tyler 

Image Worship & the Ante-Nicene Fathers (Early Church 
Fathers) by J. Endell Tyler 


The PAPAL SYSTEM by Cathcart 

The Israel of the Alps by Muston - 2 Vol - A History of the Church 
that explains and documents how the Waldensians and other 
independent Evangelicals predated (came before) the formation of 
the Roman Catholic Hierarchy. Written in English but with much 

documentation in other languages. Many sources. A French Edition 
of this exists also. 

A Defence of the Sincere and True Translations of the Holy 
Scriptures Into the English Tongue ... (1843) by William Fulke 
Contains much material dealing with the Douay Version and that also 
affects the Geneva and King James version. 

Accusations of History against the Church of Rome by Townsend 

Secret History of the Oxford Movement by Walsh 

The Oxford Movement by D'Aubigne 

(sometimes spelled simply Daubigne) - by the author of the works on 
the History of the Reformation. A sound and interesting author. 
Paganism Popery (Roman Catholicism) and Christianity by Berg 

Author Faber, George Stanley, 1773-1854. 
Christ's discourse at Capernaum : fatal to the doctrine of 
transubstantiation on the very principle of exposition adopted by the 
divines of the Roman Church and suicidally maintained by Dr. 
Wiseman, associated with remarks on Dr. Wiseman's lectures on the 
principal doctrines and practices of the (Roman) Catholic Church / by 
George Stanley Faber. - 1840. 

The apostolicity of Trinitarianism: or, The testemony of history, to 
the positive antiquity, and to the apostolical inculation, of the doctrine 
of the Holy Trinity. By George Stanley Faber- 183 2 

The difficulties of Romanism. By George Stanley Faber .. 
Philadelphia, Towar & Hogan, 1829 

On the Old Testament 

Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah by 
Alfred Edersheim (2 Vol - 1800s - Available online 
in PDF -Free) 

Introduction to the Masoretico-Critical Edition of the 
Hebrew Bible by CD. Ginsburg [2 Vol - Online Free] 

Historical EVIDENCES of the TRUTH of the Records 
of Scripture by Rawlinson (Archeologist) [Online Free] 

The Old and New Testament connected in the history of the 
Jews and neighbouring nations - Prideaux [2 Vol -Online Free] 

Life of Kanamori by Kanamori (on the consequences of the 
problems in textual criticism, Provides solution also)(Online) 

New Testament in Hebrew by CD. Ginsburg (1800s) 

[Note: Arcuate New Testaments in Hebrew are very difficult to find, and 
most modern versions use the wrong text, Instead consider the King James 
of 1611 (not the changed NKJV),The Geneva Bible, orthe Modern English 
New Testament of J ay Green, which is translated from the correct and 
accurate Ancient Greek Text, which is the historic Textus Receptus of 
Stephens (1550/51).] 

What is the Accuate Hebrew Old Testament ?The Second Rabbinic Bible of 
BenChayyim (Ben Hakkim /Jacob benChajim Ibn Adonijah)P roduced in 
Venice in 1525 at the workshop of Daniel Bomberg, 

What is the accurate New Testament in Ancient Koine G reek ? 

There are a few versions, and these would be much better than any 
produced by the UBS, the United Bible Societies. The Olderand Historic 
Editions of the G reek New Testament includes: 

1. The Textus Receptus of Stephens / Estienne (1550 / 1551) 
considered the best, 

2. The Textus Receptus published byCura P. Wilson- the 1833 version, 
available online in Free PDF format. 

3. The Textus Receptus of FHA Scrivener, his edition of 1860 [Beware of 
editions printed after his death, which were changed and which show many 
notes and notations that attack the T.R. and refer constantly to Westcottand 

4. Not in G reek, but in Latin, the Latin New Testament (Novum 
Testamentum)of Beza is a sound and Biblical Translation of the New 
Testament in Latin, 

The Intermediate/ more advanced - Student or Learner List 

The Revision Revised by John William Burgon - Oxford (all books 
by Burgon) [This is part 3 of his 3 Volume works explaining the 
historic accuracy of the standard Textus Receptus, the received text of 
the Bible used for 2000 years] 

Recapitulated apostasy - concealed apocalyptic George Stanley 
Faber... deals with the history and prophecy relating to the number 

Codex B and its Allies by professor Hoskier (deals with NKJV / Von 
Soden / etc), Greek Manuscripts and what the problems are between 
Codex Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, which contradict each other in 
thousands of places. 

[Please note: If you find any of the books to be inaccurate, then 
by all means please refute them, using documentation and 

Most people who object to almost any of these books have one 
feature in common: they have not actually read the books they 
are objecting to, for themselves. Often those who criticize the 
books also have one main goal: to prevent others from actually 
reading the books. 

This tactic is used by certain professors [sometimes also false 
Biblical critics] to discourage intellectual inquiry, where if the 
students were to actually read the words censored or banned 
by the professors, plenty of documentation and information 
would be found to refute the false premises being advanced]. 


A word about computers: It should be obvious, but if you are using storage systems 
that are called ONLINE storage systems, consider NOT using them. Online storage 
systems are systems that use the Internet to get you to have a place to hold your 
information, outside of your immediate reach. In these days when we do not know 
what will happen, that is NOT a wise approach. Online systems use their hard drives, 
and then store your information on it. Many others have access to your information, 
even though this is denied. Learn to back up your own information, on drives that you 
have, that are close to where you are. A word to the wise... 

Disclaimer - Nothing herein should be construed as a 100% endorsement of 
any author or book. We respect the right of each individual to make up their 
own mind. Further where we have suggested certain books by certain authors, 
this does not automatically suggest that we would automatically recommend 
other books by those same authors. Most of these authors are good, positive, 
encouraging and uplifting, but each person must make up their own mind. 
We simply hope to encourage people to find a few options that might be of 
encouragement to them.